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The Builder Magazine 

May 1924 - Volume X - Number 5 



Cadman, D. D., New York 

Callahan, G. M., Virginia 

Moreombe, Associate Editor, California 

ANCIENT EGYPTIAN ORDER OF SCIOTS - By Bro. Jesse M. Whited, Associate 
Editor, California 

AMERICAN INDIAN MASONRY - By Bro. Arthur C. Parker, New York 

A REVIEW OF CRYPTIC MASONRY - By Bro. George W. Warvelle, P. G. M., 

By Bro. G. W. Baird, P. G. M., District of Columbia 


THE SOUL STEALER - By Bro. W. J. Barclay, Canada 

THE STUDY CLUB - Chapters of Masonic History - Part XII, Various Grand 
Lodges; York, Ireland, Scotland, Etc. - By Bro. H. L. Haywood 

EDITORIAL - A Word to New Members of the National Masonic Research Society 


THE LIBRARY - An Interpretation of the Blue Lodge Work 
A New Edition of Gould's Concise History 
Rosicrucianism and Ereemasonry 
A Note Concerning The Builders 

A-l LODGES IN C-3 ENVIRONMENTS - By Bro. Wm. N. Ponton, Grand Master, 


Grand Lodge of England's New Temple 

Statistical Standing of the Acacia Fraternity 

The Trial of the Knights Templar 

That Famous Dollar Bill 

Information About Freemasonry in India 

Grand Lodge Ranking According to Membership. 

Dedication of House of the Temple 
What Were the Cherubim? 

A Book About Foreign Masonry is Recommended. 

Anent Gould's List of Famous American Masons. 

The Highest Masonic Lodge.. 



— o — 

Freemasonry and the Demands of the Times 
By Bro. S. PARKES CADMAN, D.D., New York 

Dr. Cadman, who is one of the most delightful companions in the world, gave 
utterance across the dinner table to so many wise things about Freemasonry, some of 
them almost radical and all of them most pertinent, that Ye Editor asked him to say 
the same things to the Craft at large through THE BUILDER. What follows is not in 
the form of his vivacious table talk but it contains the substance - except for a few 
things which he described as "too prickly for publication, and maybe dangerous 
withal." Our illustrious brother addresses multitudes of persons every year from pulpit 
and platform and over the radio; many of these audiences are composed wholly of 
Masons, for he is an enthusiastic member of "our magnificent Fraternity" (as he 
himself describes it). From 1895-1901 he was pastor of the Metropolitan Temple, 
New York; since 1901 he has been pastor of the Central Congregationalist Church, 
Brooklyn. Among his published volumes "Charles Darwin and Other English 
Thinkers," "The Three Religious Leaders of Oxford" and "Ambassadors of God" have 
been notable. 

BROTHER Freemason, this mighty Craft of ours can make itself a power for good in 
this troubled world second to none if only we can get our tremendous strength hitched 
up to the needs and problems of this hard-hit suffering world. Isn't the whole world 
in a bad way just now? It surely is! The times we live in are simply crying aloud for 
just the kind of service that Freemasonry can render and I believe that we should 
awaken ourselves from the sleep-walking we have fallen into, bestir ourselves a bit, 
and start out to discover what demands the times are making on us. Three million of 
us in this country! What an army of righteousness it is if only it will become an army 
indeed - an organized body of picked men militant in their demands that wars end, 
human suffering be relieved, hatred and malice done away, and corruption driven out 
of the seats and centers of government. Why don't our Masonic leaders get busy 
about this big job; let them mount the tower's, unlimber their trumpets, and sound the 
call to us in the ranks. "Here we are, Fafayette!" yes, but let us learn to say, "Here we 
are, World!" 

Hatred, bigotry, sectarianism, and racial strife are among the really big evils of our 
day, and account more largely for what is wrong with the world than most of us 
would at first suppose. Hatred is the opposite of charity; bigotry makes free thinking 
impossible; sectarianism is the arch enemy of universality; racial strife makes genuine 
brotherhood impossible; any one of these is doing as much damage to our race right 
now as the famous "four horses of the Apocalypse." Can Freemasonry compound 
with any of these things? not for a moment! I am absolutely opposed in every sense of 
the words to all the hysterical efforts being apostle par excellence of toleration in all 
its forms, into any propaganda, movement, cabal, or any other effort, secret or public, 
toward any form of religious, racial or political sectarianism. 

And I am equally opposed to every effort whatsoever to introduce social hysteria into 
our ranks; play is good and sociability is necessary but not to the exclusion of 
everything else, least of all if they interfere with the grave and necessary work of the 
Craft. One of the saddest sights in the world is to see a Masonic lodge, assembled 
about an altar, every heart open to the glance of the All-Seeing Eye, and working 
under the hallowed influence of that great symbol the Fetter G, transformed into an 
appendage to a vaudeville performance, or hastily put out of the way for some form 
of hokum, jazz, dancing or what not. Mind you, I am not at all opposed to good 
sport, clean fun, and wholesome sociability, which are all good and necessary things; 
but there is a time to dance, a time to play, even a time for horse-play if we feel the 
need of that kind of fun, but when that time interferes with the hours set aside for 

Freemasonry's great task and achievements it is well for us to call a halt. The great 
danger of the countless interests and activities that are now creeping into the Craft is 
that these things which should be secondary will become primary, and that what 
should be diversion on the side usurps the place of the real work of the lodge. We are 
in danger of getting out of focus and of dispersing our energies, which as I have just 
said, and as a wise and kind Heaven knows, are sorely needed by our times. 

Our Editor has asked me what I would do if I were to become today the Worshipful 
Master of a lodge. I know one thing I would do: I would thank God for such an 
opportunity of service. 1 love the Masonic lodge; it is the one place in my community 
where without embarrassment or with any form of obtrusive tolerance I can meet as 
man to man my Jewish neighbours, my neighbours of foreign birth (we have 
thousands of them in my city), my free thinking neighbour, my neighbour who never 
attends my church or any other church, my neighbours of no creed or any creed, all 
my fellow human beings of every possible social and economic stratum. I submit that 
such an organization as that is a prophecy and earnest of the coming of the Kingdom 
of God. Therefore as the Master of it I would feel as I feel in my present 
employment, that I am a humble ambassador of the good will of God to a world that 
seethes with the ill will of tom, separated, misguided men. 

I would try my best, as goes without saying, to hold up to a high standard the 
prescribed work - the monthly communication, the conferring of degrees, finding 
work for the unemployed, lending a helping hand to the needy, calling on the sick. In 
addition to that 1 believe I would try to do a few things not officially required. If a 
distinguished citizen came into my community with a real message I would invite 
him to speak to my brethren, whether he were a Mason or not. I think I should expect 
my brethren to be good citizens in every possible way; and I would try to get them to 
read something about Freemasonry itself. All Masons are interested in the public 
schools; I am interested myself, but I do believe that as at present operated our public 
schools are falling far short because they so completely omit anything in the way of 
moral or religious training. It would amaze you to know how many gangsters and 
gunmen in New York and Brooklyn have graduated from school, but with no more 
conception of moral obligation than so many Hottentots. Perhaps I would try to get 
my lodge to lend its influence in that direction. Freemasonry as a whole should do it, 
because if there is anything we stand for it is the primacy and all-importance of the 
moral life. What is the meaning of our Ritual if not that? 

In all such ways, and in every other possible way, I would endeavour to have my 
lodge go to work to help build the community. We are builders; what are we 
building? Shouldn't we try to build this present world into a fit place to live in? It is 
the demand of the times. A lodge may not be able to do much for the world at large; 
it doesn't have to, but it can do a lot for the community immediately surrounding it. 
Masons helped build America; we can help build it anew to the end that the rascality 
which now so corrupts our politics and social life may be driven out, as the Master 
drove the thieves from the Temple. 

It is a great misfortune that the forces of Freemasonry are so divided. I regret it every 
day of my life that we have in this land forty-nine Grand Lodges. Can't we somehow 
get together? If a general Grand Lodge is impossible (I do not always believe that it 
is; it wouldn't be if we didn't have so much selfishness, lust for vainglory, and so 
much of the spirit of the politician in our midst) why can't all our Grand Masters and 
other national leaders hold an annual conference to the end that the moral influence of 
the Craft be delivered to the world through one united utterance? 

I should like to see all the Grand Lodges of the world united. It would be a great step 
toward international peace. But at the same time I want to see God and the Holy 
Book kept at the center of the Craft. I know how things are in Europe; I have been 
there many times. I know how an emancipated free thinking Latin citizen looks upon 
such matters; to him they stand for many things that have never entered our own life: 
nevertheless I should like to see him join us in holding Freemasonry to its original 
foundation. Even for a united world-wide Freemasonry I would not be willing to give 
up T.S.G.A.O.T.U. or the V.S.L.; such a price would be too much to pay for unity. 

Freemasonry has no quarrel with any church. It can (and should) work with all the 
churches because its own grand purpose is identical with that of religion, and because 
its own creed is broad enough to include all the creeds. It has no quarrel with any 
government or any political party; these things are not for us, but at the same time we 
are the custodian of such principles of citizenship as underlie all governments and we 
have within our midst a sufficient influence to maintain integrity and cleanliness in 
every government, whatever it may happen to be. The main thing for us Masons is to 

hang together, live together, keep together, work together, pray together, and together 
strive to build in the midst of earth the Temple of right and kindly living, which is the 
goal of all our efforts. Whatever makes for division, sectionalism, prejudice, and 
creedal or racial hatred is un-Masonic though it should be proclaimed by all the 
Grand Lodges in the hemisphere; whatever makes for unity and for charity, for 
toleration and for kindliness, for our two great dogmas of the Fatherhood of God and 
the Brotherhood of Man, IS Masonic, and we should work for it. 

Can't we three million American Masons learn how to make ourselves felt in this 
land? We don't wish to get into politics or to take sides for or against any of the 
divisions in the church. We do wish, however, and desire, and the times asks us for 
it, to give our aid and support to the completion in this continent of that proud and 
magnificent nation which our forefathers, Masons many of them, dreamed about and 
wrought for. Together, brethren, let it be done! 

— o — 

George Washington as an Active Mason 

By Bro. CHARLES H. CALLAHAN, Grand Master, Virginia 

Since the work on the great Washington National Memorial at Alexandria, Va., has 
been begun the question has frequently been raised, Was George Washington an 
active Mason, or was he merely, like a few other illustrious men, contented to have 
his name on the roll? This question has been answered once and for all, one may 
believe, by the one man who knows most about the subject, Bro. Charles H. Callahan, 
author of "Washington, the Man and the Mason," in an address delivered before the 
Grand Lodge of South Carolina, held at Charleston, S.C., March 14, 1923. A part of 
that address is given below. 

SOME of our friends have said that George Washington was a very poor Mason, if a 
Mason at all; that if he presided over a lodge it was because the lodge wanted to 

honour itself. Perhaps this is true. And some of our Masonic friends have asked me, 
why erect a memorial to Washington at all, and if so, why erect it at Alexandria? 

Now, let us see just for a minute what was the condition of Masonry in Washington's 
day. He got his degrees in 1752 and 1753. He took up a military career, and was 
engaged in the army until 1758, away from Mt. Vernon. He returned in 1758 and 
married the widow Custis, and installed her and her children in Mt. Vernon at the 
mansion, and for fourteen years he led the quiet life of a farmer, fifty miles from the 
nearest lodge, which was at Fredericksburg. It would have been a physical 
impossibility to have any record of his visitations to that lodge for the very sufficient 
reason that the records were lost from 1755 to 1790. If he ever attended that lodge we 
could find nothing recorded of the fact because of the destruction of the records. 

The Revolution came with all of its harrowing consequences, and Washington and the 
whole country was dragged into the struggle for American independence, he to lead 
the forces. Commissioned as Commander-in-Chief in Philadelphia, he wended his 
way to Cambridge and took command of the Army, and almost immediately after he 
assumed command a military lodge was organized in the Connecticut lines, and 
before the Revolution had half closed there were ten of those militant organizations in 
the Continental Army alone. Each province had its own soldiers, and those soldiers 
were not required to go beyond the borders of that province. 

And then there was a general army called the Continental Army, and it was in that 
Continental Army that ten lodges were organized. The records have been picked up 
and patched together as best could be done, and there has been brought to light by the 
patching together of these destroyed records the fact that Washington, immediately 
after the beginning of the Revolution, became a zealous and active Mason. The 
Revolution closed, and he returned home on Christmas Eve, 1783, and the records of 
old Alexandria, No. 39, showed that two days afterwards he accepted an invitation to 
attend a banquet given by the lodge. The records show that he did attend that 
banquet, that he attended five times later, before he was made Master of No. 22. 
Immediately upon his installation he was called away to preside over the new 
Government. And it was during that period of his life from the time that he installed 
that untried government institution which today influences the political virtues of the 
world that Washington became most active and stands out as one of the most 
potential figures in Masonry. 

We must judge not from his activities in the lodge, not from his activities in the 
Masonic bodies, but from the deference which was shown to him by the leading 
Masons of that day. Upon the conclusion of the Revolutionary War the provincial 
Grand Lodges were conducted on the elective system. Gen. John Sullivan, Major 
General in the Revolutionary War, became the first Grand Master of his lodge.... 
Robert Livingston, who swore George Washington in as President of the United 
States, became Grand Master of New York and presided over its destinies for fifteen 
years, to be succeeded by General Martin. Col. Aaron Ogden became Grand Master 
of New Jersey, and R.B. Marshall of Maryland. He had been the Worshipful Master 
of the first army Union Lodge organized at Cambridge, moved from Maryland to 
South Carolina during this period and returned to organize and became the second 
and third Grand Master of your Grand Jurisdiction under the independent system. 
Edmund Randolph became the first Attorney General in Washington's administration 
while he was Grand Master of Virginia and Governor of the Commonwealth as well. 

General Jackson became Grand Master of the first Grand Lodge of Georgia; North 
Carolina had four Generals and three Governors as their first Grand Masters, and each 
had been ranking officers in the Revolutionary War; each and every one of them 
fought side by side with Washington and each and every one of them in the transition 
from the old to the new system of lodges deferred to Washington as the Freemason. 
The Grand Lodge of Massachusetts dedicated its first constitution to him; the Grand 
Lodge of New York did the same; the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania followed suit; 
the Grand Lodge of North Carolina did the same thing; and the Grand Lodge of 
Virginia, having first elected him its first Grand Master, which he declined, also 
dedicated their constitution to him. Wherever he journeyed, whether in the north or 
south, whether as a private citizen or public functionary, he was tendered all the 
horrors of a Mason, and was recognized as such by the greatest Masons in the Grand 
Lodges of this country in that or any other time, and I challenge contradiction. Is it 
conceivable that these men who bad organized these Grand Bodies would cater to a 
man who was not a zealous Freemason? Were they of that type? The Revolutionary 
War was won by red-blooded, live Americans, and Washington stands out as the 
greatest figure in the fraternal world of that day, and be stands out as the greatest 
figure in the political and military world of that day. 

That is the reason why we should build a memorial to Washington, the Mason. But, 
brethren, in the last analysis, it is not a memorial to Washington, the Mason, alone. It 
is a memorial to every Mason whose Grand Jurisdiction deems worthy a place in that 

Temple, and that is a part of the Constitution. In this Hall of Fame, says that 
Constitution, there shall be set apart a space which shall be allotted to each Grand 
Jurisdiction identifying itself with the Constitution, upon which to erect memorials to 
their illustrious dead. There is not a man in this hall, there is not a man under the 
sound of my voice that this Grand Lodge could not honour if they want to honour 
with a place in the Memorial to your own Washington. It is your temple, for your 
people. It belongs to no section and shall be confined to no age or specific purpose 
other than to honour worthy men of our Craft. 

— o — 

Present-Day Conditions of Freemasonry 

By Bro. JOSEPH E. MORCOMBE, Associate Editor, California 

"We must learn to let go of the old that ages in order to lay hold of the old that ages 

EVERY man will look at life, and the things of life, through his own spectacles. 

These are tinted by his own temperament, and most likely by his own prejudices. 
However dogmatically he may declare that this and that are self-evidently true, he can 
express no more than a personal reaction to what are accepted by himself as the 
governing facts. The value of any reasoned judgment is not so much in the 
conclusions reached, as in the mode of approach - the finding of a new angle from 
which to estimate events or tendencies. Thus in writing of present-day conditions of 
American Masonry the best that can be hoped for is a survey that may be within 
reasonable distance of the exact truth. However faulty the reasoning or inadequate 
the expression, the effort here is to present a fairly clear picture of the Craft, to 
measure its more recent progress and to guess, if no more, at the direction of its travel 
into the immediate future. 

It is to repeat a threadbare commonplace for one to assert that the present is a time of 
change. As matter of fact life itself is the sum of change, and human society can not 
be static and continue to exist. But in this our own time events beyond the common 
have forced shifts and changes so great and sudden that all things are unsettled. Ideas 
and institutions that had been regarded as most stable have suffered shock and 
betrayed weaknesses hitherto unsuspected. Petrine foundations and Masonic 
landmarks have alike been tested and often found wanting. Wise men are digging 
about the bases of their social structures, to discover what parts are weakened or 
decayed, that so repairs may be made, and collapse avoided. 

This may seem a strange preface in speaking of an institution that has somewhat 
foolishly boasted of its immutability. For there have been and still are brothers who 
will have it that Masonry cannot suffer change. For them the landmarks are 
immovable, and he who would suggest innovation, whether in form, method or ideals, 
is regarded as a profaner of the temple. Yet every social agency is governed by the 
laws of being; life is predicated on adaptability to changing environment. The course 
of time is littered with the ruins of institutions that have failed to adapt themselves to 
changing conditions. 

"All human things," says Carlyle, "are, have been and forever will be, in movement 
and change.... How often, in former ages, by eternal creeds, eternal forms of 
government, and the like, has it been attempted, fiercely enough, and with destructive 
violence, to chain the future under the past ... Man's task here below, the destiny of 
every individual man, is to be by turns Apprentice and Workman; or, say rather, 
Scholar, Teacher, Discoverer; by nature he has a strength of learning, for imitating; 
but also a strength for acting, for knowing on his own account.... The true past departs 
not, nothing that was worthy in the past departs; no truth or goodness realized by man 
ever dies, or can die; it is all still here, and, recognized or not, lives and works 
through endless change." 

It is the growing sense of impending change - of insecurity if you will - that in 
opinion of the present writer is the most remarkable and most encouraging condition 
in present-day Masonry. In our Fraternity, as in all other truly living institutions, 
there is a clash of opinions, becoming increasingly vehement as the issues are more 
clearly defined. The differences between modernist and fundamentalist are not 

confined to the churches; in every social agency there is debate between the static and 
dynamic elements. In proportion as there is vigour to such discussions will be the 
vitality of the institution. One might have despaired a few years ago of any real 
intellectual life in Masonry; today he will be encouraged by the evidences of mental 
activity and of thought devoted to the better things of the Craft. 

There are some few radicals in Masonry - stormy fellows, who would 
indiscriminatingly destroy as preliminary to any rebuilding, to whom repair and 
adjustment are words abhorrent. They are matched at the other extreme by a 
diminishing number of die-hard conservatives, who would yield no jot or tittle of the 
heritage received from the fathers. The great body of thinking Masons, however, are 
between these extremes; Masonic modernists and fundamentalists are alike concerned 
for the welfare of the Society, however much they may dimer as to the means that 
should be employed to assure its permanency. From the discussions that have already 
begun, and that will be carried on with increasing vigour, we can believe that the 
proper course will emerge. Only the most extreme of the conservatives will hold out 
against the necessity for change; the extent and method will require the wisdom of the 
Craft to decide. The very nature of the brotherhood precludes aught that is 
revolutionary. Masons whose thought is worth considering will agree, with Bacon, 
that "men in their innovations should follow the example of time itself; which indeed 
innovateth greatly, but quietly, by degrees scarce to be perceived." 

Revolutions are short-lived; they exhaust themselves of very fierceness. They mark 
the threshing-floors that God has placed through the centuries, whereon with bleeding 
feet men have beaten out some grain of truth from the gathered chaff of error and of 
wrong. In spite of some of the wild-eyed prophets of disaster no thinking American 
will fear material revolution. But there are also revolutions of thought that silently 
shake all social edifices. Who will deny that some such revolution is even now 
causing strange movements in our country? Our whole social system is being 
subjected to strains. Men are inquiring as to open wrongs and hidden iniquities. At 
such time no individual or institution can sit by indifferently. 

Masons, among others, are realizing that the Craft, as a social agency, must assume 
its full share of responsibility; must seek out its duty and bend every energy to its 
performance. It is not enough to say, at this juncture, that every real Mason can be 

depended upon to act as a good citizen should. Good causes are carried to victory by 
mass effort. The potentiality of Freemasonry in the United States is beyond aught we 
have dreamed. It can and should be used to strengthen the forces that are striving for 
the triumph of good. The matters that are of partisanship are not within our province; 
the great problems that affect human life in all relationships, wherein justice is 
concerned - these certainly are not foreign to Masonry, unless all our professions are 
to expend themselves in words. It is for Masonic lodges to seek out the truth in the 
affairs that are vital to the community or the nation. Having found out the right, there 
is but one side the Craft can take. 


This writing, however, is not an argument, but rather a brief survey of the situation. 
One must be dull indeed who has not recognized in the Masonry of today a new and 
serious note; a growing desire on the part of brothers to be informed in such manner 
that their Masonry will have a richer meaning. They are carefully and cautiously 
taking steps toward a more practical and positive conception of the Craft. They are 
asking that it shall aid them more effectively to self-realization, that it shall also give 
them an outlet for energies hitherto repressed or expended in lines less responsive and 
less deserving of confidence. American Masonry is seeking to descend from the 
sterile heights, is slowly but surely equipping itself to strive valiantly for God and 
humanity. Who, then, shall say it nay? 

To the mind of this writer it is but part of this same spirit of change for the better that 
men are seeking the spirit of Masonry with less regard for its letter. One may wonder 
at times whether relaxation of the old regulations as to the quality of men admitted is 
always wise. Yet, to take the matter of physical perfection as an example, the old 
requirement was frequently carried to absurd lengths. Trivial imperfections were 
regarded by some authorities as sufficient to bar men of high quality and 
unexceptionable character. Today stress is laid rather upon qualifications of head and 
heart, and less on missing finger-joints or crooked toes. Only again one asks whether 
in many cases the eagerness to secure members does not prompt repudiation of the 
former rules of selection. This also opens inquiry as to the great numbers that are 
clamouring for admittance at the doors of all our lodges. Are these all "duly and truly 
prepared" in heart and mind? Or are they brought hither by expectations that can 

never be satisfied, and by desires that are not in harmony with the spirit and purposes 
of Masonry? Because of this unprecedented influx our lodges are condemned to 
labours that are, at the best, but secondary. It is an absurdity to declare that these are 
Master Masons, properly instructed and having skill of craft, who have been 
perfunctorily conducted through the initiatory ceremonies of the degrees. But here 
also is cause for encouragement. Grand Lodges have recognized the fact that the 
education of a Mason is not completed when he has learned a few signs and grips and 
can make passable answers to some short catechetical form. Tentative programs are 
being prepared and experimented with, having as object the information of brothers, 
so that they can more effectively work as builders on the temple of humanity. 

With these always well-meant and sometimes wise efforts to further Masonic 
education there has been a dropping of much that before brought ridicule upon the 
Fraternity. Some few persist in attaching to the institution a mystical or occult 
content or significance. These are the jugglers of words; men whose ballast of 
reasoning is insufficient to hold down the lighter cases of imagination, and who go 
ballooning in cloud-land whithersoever the vagrant winds of fancy may blow. Men 
of today are apt to turn from that one who claims to discover portentous secrets in 
some dust-heap of time, or who affects by jumbled numbers or unmeaning words to 
come upon a wisdom transcending human wit. 


Freemasonry of our time is forward looking. What it may have received from the 
past of value will be jealously preserved. But not every dust-covered relic of a time 
gone by is worth preservation. The antique tools and arms of our predecessors may 
have place in a museum; they are no longer for use for our generation. Our great 
society is a matter-of-fact affair. Its manner of birth and course of development are 
sufficiently well known to us so that we can put its history under scrutiny, nor fear 
that we are profaning some sacred thing in putting out our hands in inquiry or 
examination. Freemasonry is, and has been from the beginning, a middle-class 
society. Its membership is a fair cross section of the best and staunchest elements of 
our American life. We have among us no school of the prophets, no workers of 
magic, whether white or black. 

For the most part the Craft is made up of intelligent men, honest and reliable in all the 
relationships of life. The society was formed for mutual assistance, and its purposes 
remain unchanged as signified in the ternary of Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth. It 
has unused capital in the good opinion of the world, the loyalty of its adherents, and it 
stands beyond any other secular society in its potentialities. That it has enemies is a 
point unduly stressed by some. The greatest enemy of Freemasonry is to be found 
within itself - the ignorance of some and the indifference of many more. These stifle 
the noblest aspirations, and render ineffective the efforts of brothers who have the 
vision and would lead the Craft to fields of resultful labour. 

It is no disheartening study to view the Masonic field. We discover a great society 
moving slowly but surely to its appointed work for human good, becoming possessed 
of a conviction of its high mission, unwilling longer to waste time and energies in 
mere barrack ground maneuvers, but demanding a place in the armies of 

"Not in vain the distance beacons, forward, forward let us range; 

Let the great world spin forever down the ringing grooves of change." 

— o — 

Ancient Egyptian Order of Sciots 

By Bro. JESSE M. WHITED, Associate Editor, California 

In response to many requests for information concerning the Order of Sciots, we 
requested Bro. Whited, Pharaoh of the Supreme Pyramid, to prepare a statement 
concerning that organization which has grown so rapidly on the West Coast. Further 
information may he had by addressing THE BUILDER or by writing to Bro. Whited 
direct at 354 Pine Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

THE Ancient Egyptian Order of Sciots originated in San Francisco in 1905, to apply 
in a practical way the precepts of the great Masonic Fraternity. The form of 
government adopted provides for a Supreme Pyramid meeting annually in November, 
with power to establish subordinate bodies. The Supreme Pyramid is composed of 
the Toparch, or presiding officer of the subordinate bodies, which are known as 
"Pyramids," and elective representatives from each Pyramid. 

The Sciots as Masons are endeavouring to furnish a new interpretation of service to 
their Fraternity. Composed of Master Masons in good standing it aims to apply in 
civic and political affairs the truths inculcated in the Blue Lodge Ritual. They 
particularly stand openly for American institutions including the public school and 
religious freedom. It is not "avowedly" anti anything, but openly and frankly 
American and Masonic. From a dozen members in 1905 the organization has grown 
until it is composed of 42 Pyramids in California and one in Nevada, with a combined 
membership of 2 1 ,000. 

The ritualistic work is founded upon an event that occurred about 1 124 B.C. when the 
Egyptians visited the Isle of Chios in the Aegean Sea and discovered there an 
association known as the "League of Neighbours," which was organized for the 
purpose of mutually promoting the welfare and happiness of its members. "Boost one 
another" is the slogan of the order. 

Among its stated objects is the union of all Master Masons in a closer bond of 
friendship, fellowship and cooperation. The Sciots hold that their most important 

duty as citizens is to stand for the enforcement of law and order, to participate in 
national, state and municipal affairs by the exercise of the franchise. The Pyramid is 
an open forum for the discussion of questions of general interest, under the strict 
prohibition that there must be no partisan or personal discussions, and that the name 
of the order must not be used to further purely political or religious purposes or 
indulge in direct anti religious propaganda. 

Class distinction based on political, social or financial standing is denounced. Clean, 
wholesome entertainment, clean advertising in a clean press are sponsored as the 
indispensable concomitants of an established social order. The Sciots teach that 
"Your neighbours' assistance and cooperation in your business affairs can be made 
kindly without obtrusion. There is needed sometimes the strong grip, not of a dues- 
paying lodge member merely, but of a friend to help you over the rough places of life; 
a kind word spoken in your defense. A watchful care over you in your journey 
through life is worth more than the most beautiful requiem, the most glowing eulogy, 
or an imposing mausoleum." 

In line with the order's application of "operative Masonry," the various Pyramids have 
devoted their activities to such matters as the establishing of scholarships for the 
children in the Masonic Home at Covina, Cal.; sponsoring and assisting chapters of 
the Order of De Molay; assisting financially the Salvation Army and cooperating with 
such groups as the students of the University of California in building their Masonic 
clubhouse. Teachers' associations have been aided to advance the prestige of the 
public school. As a force for good in the community, the Sciots hold a valued place. 
The world needs their good offices not only as Masons but as champions of its 
teachings, pyramiding respect for law and its sanctity through enforcement as first 
and foremost objectives. 

— o — 

American Indian Masonry 

By Bro. ARTHUR C. PARKER, New York 

It is the misfortune of most writers on the American Indian and his affairs that they 
know their subject only from books, and hence lack that sympathetic and intuitive 
insight which is necessary to a complete understanding; also they are frequently so 
academic in their interest that their pages grow as dry as the grass in August. Not so 
with Bro. Parker, who knows his subject "in his blood" and who writes with a poetical 
flair that comes only from the most sympathetic and whole-hearted interest. The 
second (and more thrilling) part of his narrative will be published next month; it will 
contain a vivid description of an actual Indian initiation. Our thanks are due to the 
Buffalo Consistory, A.A.S.R.N.M.J.U.S.A. and to the author for permission to 
republish here what has been printed in book form under the title "American Indian 

A TALL bronze skinned guide led the way over an ice rutted road. The journey 
toward the mysterious East had been commenced. Poliowing the guide in single file 
were four and yet three, for one was the conductor in whose presence the three were 
assured safety from all danger not of their own making. In all there were five, for 
such is the order of the journey. 

It was in the land of the Senecas, those most powerful confederates of the famous Six 
Nations of the Iroquois. To this land in the Valley of the Cattaraugus had journeyed 
the Commander-in-Chief of Buffalo Consistory with three other members of the 
Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite of Masonry. The time was midwinter in the moon of 
Nis-ko-wuk-ni, the appointed time when the great Thanksgiving of the Senecas takes 
place in a nine day celebration. During this season of gratitude to the Great Spirit the 
various fraternities and ceremonial associations hold sessions and a few of them give 
public exhibitions. Not so, however, with one whose work is all in secret, and into 
whose chamber only those purified and loyal are admitted. 

The guide led on and the four followed, three being candidates for initiation. The 
glimmering light held by the guide cast an uncertain ray upon the trail that penetrated 
the moonless winter night. It was not an easy path nor was there sound footing on 

this trail to that which was sought. At length a lodge was reached. Behind drawn 
curtains there were faint gleams of light. Four sharp knocks were given and the door 
opened a crack while a sentinel stepped out to examine those who craved admittance. 
A curious passerby might have seen by a hurried glance that the form of the lodge 
was an oblong, that there were two altars, upon one of which was placed a tray of 
incense and a heap of strange paraphernalia. But the door soon closed, and hours 
afterward the sounds of a peculiar chant, the blend of wild forest sounds mingled with 
a strange rushing noise like that of a great cataract floated out from the walls of the 
lodge-house. What was happening within? 


When the traveler or the ethnologist returns from his journey to one of the world's 
out-of-the-way places and comes again into the society of his friends and brothers, he 
finds that there are certain subjects that are of perennial interest and that men are 
curious to know what he has learned of them. Not the least among these subjects is 
Freemasonry. It is not the Freemason alone who is curious of Freemasonry; every 
man who enjoys the society of his fellow men and who sees in the symbols that are 
found in the world about him moral lessons that admonish him to virtue, sees also in 
all Cosmos the potentialities of Masonry. Thus the student who has penetrated the 
strange lands and places of Earth is called upon to tell what other races and peoples 
know of mystic orders that bind men to morality and brotherly devotion. 

In America we are asked what the native Red Man has of Masonry and if he has 
signs, grips and words like those of the ancient Craft. Oftentimes the question comes 
direct: "Are American Indians Masons?" Rumors have long been afloat that there are 
tribes that have Masonic lodges and that Masons traveling amongst them have been 
greeted by familiar signs and words and even led into lodges where ceremonies were 
conducted in due form. Is it then true that in some way our ancient brethren have 
traveled in unknown parts and among scarcely known people and have communicated 
the rituals that we hold must be inviolate; or that they have issued dispensations to 
these veiled lodges by which they may work under competent jurisdiction? How 
much of Masonry do these extra-limital Masons know, and how well do they keep 
and conceal from the profane their secret arts? If, perchance, they did not receive their 
Masonry from moderns, where in the annals of antiquity did they discover it? 

Such are the questions that are directed to the traveler who has observed the customs 
of the outer-peoples of the world. In asking such questions the interrogator assumes 
more than he may rightly do, but then, he only desires a correct impression and the 
true facts of the case 


Except in the southwest the Indians erected no great buildings of stone. In the 
northwest, especially along the coast, there were elaborate building of wood, built in 
the familiar log cabin style, but having carved pillars, posts and heraldic devices. Not 
strange to relate, perhaps, is the fact that in these two areas where building and 
craftsmanship was so highly specialized, numerous fraternities existed. In other 
regions, especially in the area of the great plains, the dwellings were more simple. 

On the east coast and extending well into the Mississippi valley on the eastern side 
many of the Indian nations were village and town dwellers living in bark covered 
houses, some of them large and roomy. The Iroquoian peoples, for example, had 
"long houses" built of poles, tree trunks and bark. Their towns were surrounded by 
stockades of tree trunks, sometimes three rows being used. Unlike the Indians of the 
plains who must move as the buffalo herds moved, the east coast Indians were more 
or less sedentary. They were thus able to build up a compact form of government and 
to evolve a well knit system of social organization. 

In digging into the earth where once arose these ancient towns of the red men we 
discover the durable artifacts made by their craftsmen. Working only with tools of 
shine and bone they made many beautiful objects, the form and symmetry of which 
excites the admiration and applause of modern observers. The archaeological 
museums of America contain numerous examples of the Indian's handiwork. From 
these things we learn that the native American of old had a keen eye, a skillful hand 
and a sense of balance and harmony of form that is scarcely equalled today. Take any 
well made and polished hatchet-head of stone (sometimes called celts, and often 
erroneously "skinning stones"), and by placing it on a smooth, level surface you will 
discover that it can be spun on one side, the axis being plainly visible and the balance 

perfect. Here is a demonstration of a studied attempt to perfect the art of balance and 
of symmetry. 

The Indian's knowledge of form is proven by an inspection of their implements. They 
produced polished spheres, oviods, crescents, circles, squares, circular disks, 
triangles, hemispheres, pyramids, etc. In drawing geometrical designs, however, they 
seldom went beyond an octagon. The Indian, it will be seen, had his form of the 
plumb, the level, the square and the compasses. 

There will be some who will state that the Indians never made objects that reveal 
craftsmanship but that such things are the work of the "mound builders." Such 
persons are not well informed of modern research, for if they were they would know 
that the mound builders were Indians and that the old time theory of the mysterious 
"Mound Builders" is an exploded myth. Indians built the mounds and made all 
aboriginal artifacts found in them. Documents have been discovered that prove that 
the French and Spanish explorers saw the Indians erecting mounds. All the 
archaeological authorities now know that America had no "mysterious race that was 
vanquished by the Indians." 

(To be concluded next month) 

— o — 

A Review of Cryptic Masonry 

By Bro. GEORGE W. WARVELLE, P.G.M., Illinois 

Cryptic Masonry, as that Rite is known which includes the degrees of Royal and 
Select Master (and sometimes the degree of Superexcellent Master), has its name 
from the fact that its ceremonies are symbolically connected with a crypt or secret 
vault. Its growth during the past few years has been extraordinary, a significant thing 
in view of the fact that it stands on its own bottom and is not used as a stepping-stone 
to some other Rite. Bro. Fay Hempstead, Little Rock, Ark., is General Grand Master; 
Bro. Henry W. Mordhurst, Fort Wayne, Ind., is General Grand Recorder. Bro. 
Warvelle has contributed to the literature of the Rite a number of essays of permanent 
value, one of the most useful of them being a historical review, the first part of which 
follows. The next General Assembly will be held at Portland, Me., Sept. 8 and 9, 

AMONG the many systems of Exalted Masonic Symbolism now practiced in the 
United States, none have received a more general recognition or hearty acceptance 
than the beautiful allegory known as the Rite of the Secret Vault. Yet, like the great 
mass of our traditions, degrees and ceremonial observances, its origin is unknown, 
and its early history, for the most part, consists merely of legends that are incapable 
of verification and, in some instances, unworthy of belief. Its fundamental principles 
may, indeed, be traced to the English Masonry of the revival, but there is no evidence 
that the degrees, as such, were ever known or practiced outside of our own country 
prior to the commencement of the present century, and the preponderating opinion of 
Masonic archaeologists now is that they are the works of the early American 
ritualists. I have, in my former addresses before these conventions, endeavoured to 
discuss, in a general and possibly not altogether satisfactory way, these phases of the 
subject, and to present to you my own views and conclusions with respect thereto; 
yet, as fancy and fable have well nigh obscured the real facts, much must necessarily 
be left to conjecture, and it therefore follows that any conclusion, however carefully 
formed, must still be open to doubt and susceptible to impeachment. Today, however, 
I stand on more certain ground, and in the remarks which follow, I shall endeavour to 
show, in brief epitome, the growth and development of the Cryptic Rite on the lines 
of fairly authenticated history. 

Dismissing from our consideration the apocryphal story of the transmission of the 
degrees from Frederick the Great and their subsequent exploitation by the Inspectors 
General of the Rite of Perfection, it may be said that the history of Cryptic Masonry, 
as a coherent and connected system, commences with the year 1818, and that it owes 
its present existence to the zeal or cupidity, or both combined, of Jeremy L. Cross. It 

has been clearly established that Cross received the degree of Select Mason from 
Philip P. Eckle, at Baltimore, in May, 1817, and thereupon actively entered into the 
work of its dissemination; that early in 1818 he, in some manner, became "possessed" 
of the degree of Royal Master Mason, which, prior to that time, had been mainly 
controlled by Thomas Lownds and his associates, and that he then conceived the 
project of uniting the two and forming a new system, to which he gave the name of 
Royal and Select Masters. The exact time when this was consummated has never 
been definitely ascertained, but Josiah H. Drummond who has carefully run down the 
early Cross Charters, fixes the event at some period between May and August of the 
year 1818. It does not seem, however, that the plan was fully perfected until the year 
following. From this period, then, may be dated the commencement of the Cryptic 
Rite and its existence as an organized branch of Freemasonry. 

But in order to obtain a more intelligent conception of the development and progress 
of the Cryptic degrees during the years which have intervened since Cross first gave 
them publicity, it will be necessary to indulge in a brief retrospect of the high degrees, 
generally, during the same period, and to institute a few comparisons between the 
United States and other countries where they are practiced. 

The original purport of all "high degrees" was superior knowledge; the possession of 
some part of the mysterious arcana unknown by or denied to the great mass of the 
initiated. As a necessary corollary, membership was limited in point of numbers, and 
the exclusive character thus imparted, formed one of the earliest and strongest 
incentives for their acquisition. This was the general condition of high-grade 
Masonry in the United States at the time Cross entered upon his Cryptic mission, and 
which so continued for many years, and this, practically, is its special characteristic in 
England and Continental Europe at the present time. It was not expected that the 
multitude would either desire or appreciate the more profound philosophy of the high 
degrees, nor was it intended that they should participate in the ultimate secrets, and in 
all countries, except our own, this policy has never been departed from. During those 
early years many initiates failed even to attain the Master's Degree, while the number 
who were admitted to the mysteries of the Royal Arch were few indeed. In the 
chivalric orders the same rule prevailed. The Knights Templar was then, as now, the 
popular branch of these orders, but as they appealed at that time only to the 
intellectual and religious element of the Craft, their numbers were ever of the most 
limited character. If we may judge from the published transactions of the first thirty 
years of the present century, I think I make no misstatement when I say that in point 

of numbers and influence the Cryptic Rite equalled, if, indeed, it did not exceed, that 
of the Order of the Temple, and this was its comparative standing when, in 1829, the 
blight of Morganism fell upon the Masonic world. From 1830 to 1840 the high 
degrees, generally, were in a dormant condition. From 1840 to 1850 there was a 
period of convalescence, but it was not until 1860 that full recovery was effected. 
About this time the A.A.S.R. commenced to relax its theretofore exclusive character, 
by the creation of working bodies; two years later the Grand Encampment gave 
impetus to Templarism by discarding the ancient badge of a Mason - the apron - 
which, prior to that time, had always been worn, and adopting a showy uniform and 
the mimicry of military usages. The Council, which, in the general awakening, had 
measurably kept pace with other organizations, then commenced to suffer by 
comparison, yet at all times its numbers have been fairly in proportion to the number 
of Master Masons in the country, and gauged by the standards which prevail 
elsewhere, and to which I have just alluded, its growth, though not large, has yet been 
eminently satisfactory and in keeping with its traditions and declared exclusive 

In this review I shall treat this subject by topics, rather than attempt to follow a 
general chronological sequence, and as an introduction to the events of later periods, 
shall first say a few words with respect to 


Before and during the experimental stages of constitutional organization the "superior 
grades" were handled mainly by itinerant lecturers and degree peddlers, as an article 
of merchandise, for the benefit of the ambitious and credulous. Men purchased what 
was offered with little or no inquiry as to the seller's title or right to convey, while 
manufactured pedigrees and forged deeds were generally sufficient to satisfy those 
who perchance might demand an inspection of the muniments. Therefore, like most 
of the other "high degrees" practiced in the United States, those of the Cryptic 
curriculum will not bear severe critical investigation in tracing the derivation of the 
authority by which they are conferred. While there are legitimate and recognized 
sources from which they flow, yet the channels of transmission, in many cases, are 
either unknown or unconnected with the original fountain. The records of a number 
of jurisdictions show that in many instances Councils were established on no other 

authority than such as they assumed for themselves or the equally doubtful powers of 
some self-constituted "deputy" or "agent," while the degrees, in numberless instances, 
were "conferred" individually by simple oral communication and without any 
pretense of authority or semblance of right other than that which accompanies mere 

The authentic remains of the early history of Cryptic Masonry in many jurisdictions 
furnishes abundant examples of the foregoing remarks, and the beginnings of the Rite 
in Massachusetts afford, perhaps, as good an illustration as can be cited. It would 
seem that as early as 1817 several Royal Arch Masons residing at Boston who, in 
some way not now known, had obtained the degree of Royal Master, after a mutual 
consultation determined, of their own motion, to establish a Council. They 
accordingly met and organized by the election of officers, selection of a name and 
adoption of bylaws, and from that time on continued to confer the degree of Royal 
Master on such persons as were found to be qualified and desirous of receiving it. 

The Council increased rapidly in numbers and popularity; individuals from other 
parts of the state came to Boston and received the degree and, on returning home, 
assisted in organizing Councils in their respective localities. Thus the degree was 
diffused, and as late as 1826 only two Councils in the state are known to have had 
charters, each Council resting solely on its own authority and acting in an 
independent capacity. The same conditions will be found to have prevailed in many 
other states. But time, the great healer, has long since cured these congenital 
infirmities, while the twin forces of attraction and cohesion have welded into a 
compact and homogeneous mass the contending and ofttimes incongruous elements 
which compose the early and widely separated Councils of the country. 

Aside from a few unauthenticated instances of communication by certain of the 
"Inspectors General," the primary dissemination of the degrees, in organized bodies, 
and under constitutional authority, must be conceded to Wilmans and Eckle at 
Baltimore, and Lownds at New York, the former controlling the Select, the latter the 
Royal Degree. The Baltimore body, if indeed it can be called a body, never seems to 
have developed into a permanent organization, but rested rather in the caprice of the 
"chiefs" who controlled, or assumed to control, the degree of Select Mason. By these 
men temporary Councils were organized whenever it was deemed expedient and the 
degree was conferred upon persons of their own selection. During the entire period of 
its exploitation by Williams, Eckle and Niles, commencing at about 1795 and ending 
with the assumption of jurisdiction by the Grand Chapter of Maryland in 1 824, it does 

not seem that any body, bearing any similitude to those then or subsequently 
established to control or confer the other degrees of Masonry, was ever organized. 
There was indeed a vague and ill-defined something known as the Grand Council 
over which Eckle was supposed to preside as "Grand Puissant," but this body never 
materialized sufficiently to afford a good view, and from all that we can leam it 
would seem that Eckle, as Grand Puissant, held and conferred the degree in a sort of 
proprietary right. 

Lownds, on the other hand, subjected his degree of Royal Master Mason to 
constitutional authority by the organization, in 1810, of a permanent body for its 
control and diffusion, and this body, which has successfully withstood all the 
mutations of time and the vicissitudes of fate, is still in existence as Columbian 
Council, No. 1, of New York. 

From these two bodies, mediately or immediately, is derived the Cryptic system 
instituted by Cross in 1818, and promulgated by him and his "deputies," as well as 
appropriated and imitated by others who came after him. 

For a number of years Cross was very active in establishing Councils and conferring 
degrees. The common report says that he found the business very lucrative and as 
none of his charter fees ever found their way to his reputed principal, the "Grand 
Council of the Select" at Baltimore, there is much reason to believe that these 
rumours were not altogether unfounded. Finding the growing demand beyond his 
power to supply without aid, he deputized one Cushman to assist him in the work and 
a number of Councils were organized by his lieutenant. Rival peddlers afterwards 
appeared upon the scene, the most active of whom was John Barker, who worked as 
an "agent" of the "Supreme Council of the United States," and by virtue of the "high 
power" in him vested by the "Grand Constitution of the Thirty-third Degree," sold 
Cross' lectures and organized Councils. The combined efforts of these organizers, 
together with others of lesser note, soon had the effect of producing a very thorough 
and wide-spread diffusion. Cryptic Masonry became popular; it was cheap and at the 
same time "way up," and had nothing interfered to stop its onward march we may 
reasonably assume that it would in time have developed the full beauty of its still 
latent symbolism and have become one of the great Masonic expositors of the world. 
But being an exotic, it was acutely sensitive to every depressing influence, and when 

by 1830 the fires of fanaticism had been fanned to their fiercest heat nearly every 
Council in the country had ceased its labours and passed into a condition of 
dormancy. For a period of ten years, or from 1830 to 1840, the Cryptic page is 
almost a blank. Then came a slow awaking, but in many localities dormancy had 
passed into death, and so complete was the extinction that even the memory of 
Councils and Grand Councils was lost until in after years the student, groping amid 
the debris of long forgotten days, discovered and brought to light the old records and 
other evidences of former life. From 1840 to 1850 may be termed the period of the 
revival, and from this latter date until the present time the Rite has made substantial 
progress, but with periods of depression that can be better explained in connection 
with other topics embraced in this review. 


While the degree of Royal Master seems to have been originally conferred on Master 
Masons, that of Select Master has always been considered as an extension or 
explanation of the Royal Arch Degree, and its earliest known exploitation was as an 
adjunct of a Chapter or under Royal Arch auspices. This was its distinctive character 
while it remained under the control of Companions who first gave it publicity at 
Baltimore, and the only authority for its dissemination ever received by Cross, 
contemplated the retention of this idea, and although it was soon abandoned by him, 
its effect was visible for many years, and is still urged in those jurisdictions where 
Capitular domination continues to be exercised. 

In the year 1 824 it was formally incorporated as a part of its system by the Grand 
Chapter of Maryland, and thence-forward, until very recent years, continued to be 
worked in its regular scale of Capitular degrees. About this time numerous self- 
constituted "agents" and emissaries were driving an active and lucrative business in 
the sale of the degrees, which induced the Maryland Companions to appeal to the 
General Grand Chapter. The matter came up at the session held in 1829, when a 
resolution was adopted recommending the Councils to place themselves under the 
authority of State Grand Chapters, and granting authority to the Grand Chapters to 
make such arrangements as might be found necessary for conferring the Cryptic 
degrees in the Royal Arch Chapters of their obedience. While the General Grand 
Chapter thus formally recognized the degrees of Royal and Select Master as 

legitimate parts of the Capitular system, it did little or nothing in the way of carrying 
out the resolution of 1 829, and in 1 844, upon the revival of Cryptic interest, the 
matter again came before it when, after reaffirming the resolution of 1 829, a rule was 
entered, that the conferring of the Cryptic degrees should be subsequent to that of the 
Royal Arch. In 1850 a committee was appointed to inquire into the expediency of 
forming a General Grand Council for the United States, but this committee reported 
that the measure was inexpedient, and the matter was dropped. In 1853 the Cryptic 
question was again presented, but by this time Councils and Grand Councils had very 
generally assumed jurisdiction and labour, and the question was definitely settled by 
the adoption of a resolution declaring that the General Grand Chapter and the 
governing bodies of Royal Arch Masons affiliated with and holding jurisdiction under 
it had no rightful authority or control over the Royal and Select Degrees, and 
thereafter would entertain no question growing out of the government or working of 
the same. Thus matters remained until the Session of 1877, when petitions were 
received from several Grand Chapters asking permission to take cognizance and 
jurisdiction of the Cryptic degrees, and permit the conferring of same by their 
constituent Chapters. The matter was referred to a committee, who reported 
adversely to the prayer of the petitioners, but the General Grand Chapter was "on the 
fence" that year, and consideration of the report was postponed until the next ensuing 
Triennial session. In the meantime, the Grand Chapters pursued their own course, 
and when the General Grand Body reconvened in 1880, nine of its constituents had 
practically absorbed the Councils in their respective jurisdictions. 

Of the attitude of State Grand Chapters but little can be said based upon official 
action. In Virginia, at an early day (1841), a mistake of fact induced a dissolution of 
the Grand Council and a surrender of the degrees to the Chapter which has ever since 
retained them. Michigan, at its organization, assumed control over the degrees as of 
right. Maryland always maintained that position, but in most of the states they were 
tolerated simply when conferred under the auspices of the Chapter. After the decisive 
action of the General Grand Chapter in 1853, the state bodies generally disclaimed 
jurisdiction, and from that time until the "merger," the Cryptic degrees were 
recognized as an independent and totally distinct branch of the American Masonic 

(To be concluded next month) 


Great Men Who Were Masons 
Captain George H. Derby 

By Bro. GEORGE W. BAIRD, P.G.M., District of Columbia 

GEORGE H. DERBY, the father of American wits, was, after graduating from West 
Point in 1846, commissioned second lieutenant in the Ordnance and then, after three 
months of service, was transferred to the Engineers. In 1847 he was promoted "for 
gallant and meritorious conduct at the battle of Cerro Gordo, Mexico"; in 1860 he 
was made a captain. 

Captain Derby was bom in Dedham, Mass., in 1823, and died in New York in 1861, 
at the early age of thirty-eight. As a wit he had no peer, ante-dating Artemus Ward, 
Bill Nye, Mark Twain and the other well known American humorists, though his 
humor was very different from theirs. 

He received a serious wound in the Mexican War which incapacitated him for very 
active service so, there being no retired list in the army at that time, he was employed 
on such surveys as the Lighthouse Establishment and other inland services demanded. 
He was a member of San Diego Lodge, No. 35, San Diego, Cal., and was a Past 
Master when he affiliated with that lodge. 

Captain Derby conducted the explorations in Minnesota in 1 849, and from that region 
went to the Pacific Coast. He had not the distinction of being a "forty-niner" but came 
near being a "spring of fifty." The writer has found many pioneers of the Golden State 
who knew Derby well. He made the first survey of the harbor of San Diego, the 
second largest on the west coast, and had charge of the Military Roads Department of 

the Pacific in the early days. In 1856 he became surveyor of the United States Coast 
Survey, and also Lighthouse Engineer. 

But he never seemed to have enough to keep him busy. Over the pen name of "John 
Derby," also "Phoenixiana," he wrote the famous "Squibob Papers," "The Ladies' 
Relief Society," "Inauguration of the New Collector," etc., and at times wrote 
editorials for the San Diego Herald. The Herald was a prominent political paper with 
much power in California. Once when the editor had to leave town for a few days he 
left Captain Derby in charge and behold! Derby changed the politics of the paper in 
one well written editorial. The joke seemed particularly pleasing to the "slopers" from 
one end of the state to the other, so that the laughter was loud and long. 

Derby was accurate in his figures and, being a particularly good draughtsman, made 
very acceptable reports to the War and Treasury Departments. But when writing 
reports of his surveys he managed to incorporate many humorous stories. An example 
of these yams is found in one of his books wherein he tells of his determination of the 
terminals and the length of Kearney street, which at that time was the principal 
thoroughfare of San Francisco. After making his triangulations he plotted his work, 
only to find that he had shoved the terminal of the street out into the water, near 
Sauculito. Thereupon he tried another method. He invented a "go-it-ometer" which he 
placed on a soldier's back so that the apparatus would register each step taken by the 
man. But the man, though he made a satisfactory start, passed a beer saloon where a 
grind organ was played and went in and danced twenty miles in a few hours! Upon 
this, Derby, who was at his wits end, secured some information from the driver of an 
omnibus, plotted it out on paper and turned it in. 

General Sherman, who at the time was out of the army and head of a bank in San 
Francisco, told the present writer another Derby story. Derby came into the bank 
(where he kept government funds), picked up a check and wrote on it "one cigar, 
George H. Derby"; he handed this to the teller who promptly tore it up and informed 
the Captain that the bank did not sell cigars. Without a smile Derby re-wrote the 
check. This time the teller took it to Sherman who wrote the notation "twenty-five 
cents" on it and told the teller to give Derby a cigar. Sherman knew that the check 
would have to pass the accounting officers of the Treasury Department and that 
Derby would have trouble to explain, therefore they would have a joke on him. 

The Secretary of War invited all army officers to draw and present to the Department 
designs for changes in army uniforms such as would seem best to them. Derby, who 
was a particularly clever freehand sketcher, entered the competition and sent in a 
number of drawings which are still in the War Department. Jefferson Davis was 
Secretary of War at the time and, being a West Pointer himself, gave this competition 
personal attention. Mr. Davis may have had many faults, but he was at all times a 
gentleman of the old school and the personification of dignity, so that no one dared to 
attempt any familiarity with him. He seemed particularly pleased with Derby's 
beautiful drawings and explanations until he came to the uniforms for the cavalry. 
Derby's sketch showed the cavalryman with a hook attached to the back of his 
trousers on which it was suggested that saddle-bags be hung when the cavalryman 
was not astride his horse! This angered Mr. Davis very much. He called in the Chief 
of Engineers with a view of having Captain Derby court-martialed for gross 
disrespect, but the Chief advised him to let it pass lest the joke recoil upon the 
Secretary himself. Mr. Davis took his advice, but in looking over the several sketches 
again, he found others as wicked. 

In 1861 Derby was stricken down with a sunstroke Then erecting a lighthouse on the 
west side of Florida; he was taken to New York but soon died. His body was buried in 
the family lot in Bellefontaine Cemetery at St. Louis, Mo., but about twenty years ago 
was removed to the Military Academy at West Point and re-interred, and over it was 
placed a modest memorial. 

Captain Derby descended from Revolutionary stock. Among his ancestors were men 
of great learning. His grandmother was Mrs. Horatio Townsend; his father was John 
Barton Derby of Salem; his mother was Mary Townsend of Medfield. He was a 
descendant of Roger Williams of Rhode Island and also of Governor Thomas Dudley 
of Massachusetts. Captain Derby married Mary Angeline Coons of St. Louis and had 
three children, Daisy Peyton Derby (Mrs. Black); Mary Townsend Derby; and George 
McClellan Derby, the last named of whom is still living and is a retired Colonel in the 
army. From Bro. Cyrus Field Willard, editor of the "Master Mason," San Diego, Cal., 
I learned, as I stated above, that Captain Derby affiliated with San Diego Lodge, No. 
35, as a Past Master. He had been initiated in Benicia, Cal. 


A candidate seeks admittance into a Masonic lodge and is not sought, comes of his 
own free will and accord, and is not stimulated by any motive of a selfish kind; the 
whole responsibility for membership is laid upon his shoulders. Nevertheless, and 
even so, a lodge has obligations to him so that in taking such a step he deserves 
personal attention from the brethren with whom he wishes to affiliate himself. In 
preparing himself to become a Mason he should have the assistance of those who are 
already Masons to the end that at the very beginning of his new relationship he will 
be made to feel the fine spirit and friendliness of the Craft. 

It is a good thing for a committee to visit him personally, also the Worshipful Master 
if that is possible, for oftentimes a few private words of information will dispel many 
doubts and misunderstandings. If a questionnaire is to be filled out by him each 
question should be carefully explained, its purpose being made clear so that he will 
not place on it his own private interpretation; and the questions should not be in the 
form of an inquisition but should rather present in query form all the main "points of 
fellowship," which in our times are more than five. Also, these questions should be in 
strict harmony with the by-laws of the lodge, and with the code used by the Grand 
Lodge having jurisdiction, for a questionnaire should not be so framed as to exclude 
from membership an applicant on such grounds as under any given code would not 
exclude him. That would be to set up unwritten laws above the laws of a lodge or a 
Grand Lodge. 

Upon the night of his initiation the main thing is to help him to approach the portals 
of the Craft in the right frame of mind, not frightened as if he were to be put through a 
humiliating ordeal, and not in a flippant mood looking toward horse play. To secure 
this a wise Master will see to it that the preparation room is attractive in appearance, 
comfortable in its appointments, and that no dull-witted jokes are there perpetrated at 
the candidate's expense; also it is a fine thing for the Master, or some other lodge 
officer, to meet the candidate before he enters the lodge with a formal "address to the 

candidate," several forms of which are in more or less general use, and which need 
not be long or heavy but so phrased as to set the key for what is to follow. 

Nor should this personal attention to the candidate cease after he has been raised. 
Why shouldn't a committee visit him once again, this time to explain to him 
something about the workings of the lodge, how to visit other lodges, how to find a 
niche for himself in the lodge's activities, and how to learn something about the 
mighty Fraternity of which he has become a member? If too many candidate's are 
raised to make such personal attention possible the Master could easily arrange to 
meet with a class of new members every other month, have a little social hour with 
them, and then talk to them as a group about such things. 

One of the principal causes of the slackness of interest on the part of members new 
and old is just the lack of contact between the lodge and the individual. One does not 
need to seek farther, or go into profound discussions of it, to learn the cause of most 
of the indifference which now plagues lodges so much. 

— o — 


I have two copies of Rebold's General History of Freemasonry, published at Toledo, 
Ohio, 1883, translated by J. Fletcher Brennan. One of the volumes has for a 
frontispiece a "View of the Interior of Solomon's Temple"; and the other has a picture 
of "Ancient Athens" for the same purpose. Both books stop at page 358 and omit all 
material dealing with British America, references to which are included in the index 
in both instances. What are these volumes worth ? They are both in the original cloth 
bindings so that the omission just mentioned was evidently intentional. Will brethren 
interested please communicate with me ? 

N.W.J. Hay don, 564 Pape Avenue, Toronto, Canada. 

o — 

Illustrious Masons of Ireland 

Along With Some Paragraphs Concerning Daniel O'Connell and Elizabeth St. Leger, 
the Famous "Lady Freemason" 

By Bro. J. H. EDGE, Ireland 

A brother has written to ask if John Wesley, founder of the Methodist Church, was a 
member of the Craft. Instead of the usual reply in the Question Box we are herewith 
reprinting a portion of the paper contributed to Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Vol. 

XXVI, page 131, by Bro. J. H. Edge, which contains a reply to the inquiry along with 
much other interesting matter beside. Readers interested in Irish Masonry, about 
which something is said in the Study Club Department this month, should take care to 
read the entire article, which is entitled "A Short Sketch of the Rise and Progress of 
Irish Freemasonry." 

WE can point with pardonable pride to the long roll of illustrious Irishmen who have 
joined Freemasonry - men who differed widely in their religious and political views, 
but who were enabled at the same time to unite in the common brotherhood of the 
Masonic Order. Dean Swift was a member of the same lodge in London which 
enrolled on its books his life - long friends, John Arbuthnot and Alexander Pope. For 
some years we claimed the great John Wesley, though an Englishman, as an Irish 
brother, owing to the fact that a Rev. John Wesley was a member of a lodge in 
Downpatrick, and a contemporary of his famous namesake. It has now been 
ascertained that this member of an Irish lodge was not the earnest evangelist who 
founded the world- wide brotherhood of Methodists. By way of a slight compensation 

we are proud to claim as a brother, though he was an Englishman and a member of an 
English lodge, Samuel Wesley, nephew of John Wesley, the evangelist, and son of 
the Rev. Charles Wesley, the melodious hymnwriter. Samuel Wesley evidently 
inherited the remarkable musical genius of his family. In 1813 he composed and 
conducted a Grand Anthem for Freemasons. A few years later, he composed a Grand 
Mass for the Chapel of Pope Pius VI., and received in appreciation of it an official 
Latin letter of thanks from the Sovereign Pontiff, and then, as a sort of 
counter-balance, he composed for the Church of England a complete set of Matins 
and Evensong, which at once took rank among our favorite Cathedral Services. 

Arthur, the first Duke of Wellington, was christened Arthur Wesley, and he did not 
use the surname of Wellesley until he was twenty-nine years of age. He was a near 
relative of the founder of the Methodists; both were born leaders of men, and in 
determination of character, straightforward conduct, and wonderful powers of 
organization, there were many points of resemblance between the two cousins. The 
Iron Duke was born in Ireland; and Dangan Castle, Trim, and Mornington House 
(now the office of the Irish Land Commission), Dublin, both claim to have been the 
places of his birth. He was certainly initiated as a Freemason in a lodge held in Trim, 
and signed the Roll of the lodge in 1790 as 'A. Wesley.' He did not, however, take any 
active part in the working of our Order during his arduous and eventful career. 

That great Tribune of the People, Daniel O'Connell became a Freemason in 1799, 
and continued an active and prominent brother for several years. Not satisfied with 
being a member of the lodge in Dublin in which he was initiated, and of which he 
became Master, he was one of the founders of a lodge in Tralee, and was affiliated to 
the well-known Lodge No. 13, Limerick. O'Connell was a loyal son of the Roman 
Catholic Church. He was also a liberal-minded, largehearted man, and often helped 
his Protestant fellow countrymen. Many striking incidents have been related of this 
celebrated Irishman, but I do not think it is generally known that one of the very first 
uses to which he put his membership of the Imperial Parliament, after he gained for 
himself and his co-religionists Catholic Emancipation, was to demand justice for an 
Irish Protestant named George Dallas Mills, who had been a clerk in the Dublin post 
office. Mills discovered frauds and abuses in the management of his department, and 
reported them to headquarters. The Government, on investigation, found Mills was 
right, reformed the post office, and, of course, dismissed the delinquents, but took the 
extraordinary course of dismissing Mills also. O'Connell's chivalrous intervention 

was successful. He obtained a life pension for the man who had been so infamously 

The Roman Catholic Church showed at an early date its hostility to the Masonic 
revival in the eighteenth century by issuing numerous Bulls, Letters, and Decrees 
against it, beginning with the Bull, In Eminenti, of Pope Clement XII., dated the 28th 
April, 1738. Notwithstanding such denunciations, the majority of the Irish brethren 
were at the commencement of the last century of the Roman Catholic persuasion. 

This did not arise from any wilful disobedience to the directions of their church, but 
rather either from ignorance of their church's wishes or from the Bulls which had then 
been issued not having been ecclesiastically promulgated in Ireland, or perhaps even 
from other causes, such as doubts as to whether the church's mandates on the subject 
were temporary or perpetual. The Roman Catholic Church's opposition has continued 
to the present day, as is evidenced by the various declarations, including a peremptory 
Encyclical Letter of Pope Leo XIII., of April 20, 1884. 

O'Connell, in a letter which appeared in The Pilot newspaper of the 24th April, 1837, 
stated his reasons for having left our Order. It is only fair to his memory, and also to 
ourselves, to give his letter in its completeness. It was read at the time in Grand 
Lodge, and is as follows: 


To the Editor of The Pilot, 

London, April 19 (1837). 


A paragraph has been going the rounds of the Irish newspapers purporting to have my 
sanction, and stating that I had been at one time Master of a Masonic Lodge in 
Dublin, and still continue to belong to that Society. 

I have since received letters addressed to me as a Freemason and feel it incumbent on 
me to state the real facts. 

It is true that I was a Freemason and a Master of a lodge It was at a very early period 
of my life, and either before an ecclesiastical censure had been published in the 
Catholic Church in Ireland prohibiting the taking of the Masonic oaths, or at least 
before I was aware of that censure. I now wish to state that having been acquainted 
with it, I submitted to its influence, and many, very many years ago, unequivocally 
renounced Freemasonry. I offered the late Archbishop, Dr. Troy, to make that 
renunciation public, but he deemed it unnecessary. I am not sorry to have this 
opportunity of doing so. 

Freemasonry in Ireland may be said to have (apart from its oaths) no evil tendency, 
save as far as it may counteract in some degree the exertions of those most laudible 
and useful institutions - institutions deserving of every encouragement - the 
temperance Societies. 

But the great, the important objection is this - the profane taking in vain the awful 
name of the Deity - in the wanton and multiplied taking of oaths - of oaths 
administered on the Book of God either in mockery or derision, or with a solemnity 
which renders the taking of them, without any adequate motive, only the more 
criminal. This objection, which, perhaps I do not state strongly enough, is alone 
abundantly sufficient to prevent any serious Christian from belonging to that body. 

My name having been dragged before the public on this subject, it is, I think, my duty 
to prevent any person supposing that he was following my example in taking oaths 
which I now certainly would not take, and consequently become a Freemason which I 
certainly would not now do. 

I have the honour to be, 
Your faithful servant, 

Daniel O'Connell. 

We must all respect our fellow-countryman for obeying the dictates of his conscience. 
We not only would not wish, but would prohibit, any man from joining our Order if 
we knew that he considered it wrong to do so; and we would not attempt to retain a 
brother among us if, like Daniel O'Connell, he believed that to remain a Freemason 
would be a sin, or lead to a waste of time or money. The very circumstance that, since 
their church's directions have been made quite clear on the point, so few Roman 
Catholics have belonged to our Craft in Ireland, shows conclusively that Irish 
Freemasonry does not sap or meddle with the religious faith of its members. 

I shall just add a few words on O'Connell's references to temperance and oaths. 
Shortly before the date of his letter, a Temperance Association had been started in 
Munster by the Rev. Nicholas Dunscombe, an Episcopalian clergyman; Richard 
Dowden, a Nonconformist layman; and William Martin, a member of the Society of 
Friends; and almost while O'Connell's letter was being written these three men were 
joined by the Rev. Theobald Mathew, a Capuchin monk, who, by his burning 
enthusiasm and earnest advocacy, quickly became the leader of the crusade. 
O'Connell very properly favored this movement. It had a great deal to do with 
restricting excessive drinking at all entertainments, including Masonic banquets. 
Now-a-days there is no excessive drinking at our Masonic entertainments; and we as 
brethren welcome the increasing number of total abstinence lodges among us. 

As to the superfluity of oaths, involving and indiscriminate and indefensible misuse 
of the Divine Name, the only excuse - and it is a very lame one for such a system is, 
that it was only too common in Courts of Justice and in all societies one hundred 
years ago. The practice of taking oaths has been virtually abolished in Irish 
Freemasonry. It was never an essential part of our ritual; and affirmations, instead of 

them, when the majority of the brethren present so wished it, were quite possibly 
often allowed in olden times. We still require signs and passwords, for the reasons I 
have already stated [in portion of the essay not here published]; but a pledge or 
promise not to reveal them, unless in accordance with our rules, can now be given in 
whatever manner is binding on the conscience of the candidate. 


To turn to a less grave subject. You have all, doubtless, heard it alleged that there was 
one lady who became a member of the Craft. I think most of us regarded the tradition 
as merely a myth, just an idle story invented by some outsider with the object of 
ridiculing us. Late investigations have tended to prove its authenticity. The lady was 
the Honourable Elizabeth St. Leger, daughter of Lord Doneraile. The ceremony of her 
initiation is said to have taken place in a lodge held in Doneraile Court about the year 
1712, when she probably was not more than eighteen or nineteen years of age, as she 
was bom in 1693. She had overheard Masonic matters and it was thought advisable to 
admit her into our Craft under the obligation of secrecy. Her future husband, Richard 
Aldworth, to whom she was married in 1713, was present at her admission. She 
continued during the rest of her life to take a keen interest in Freemasonry. We have 
no positive proof that any other woman was ever admitted in Ireland. 

Thou, too, sail on, O Ship of State! 
Sail on, O UNION, strong and great! 
Humanity with all its fears, 

With all the hopes of future years, 

Is hanging breathless on thy fate! 

We know what Master laid thy keel. 

What Workmen wrought thy ribs of steel, 

Who made each mast, and sail, and rope, 
What anvils rang, what hammers beat, 

In what a forge and what a heat 
Were shaped the anchors of thy hope! 

Fear not each sudden sound and shock, 

'Tis of the wave and not the rock; 

'Tis but the Capping of the sail, 

And not a rent made by the gale! 

In spite of rock and tempest roar, 

In spite of false lights on the shore, 

Sail on, nor fear to breast the sea! 

Our hearts, our hopes, are all with thee, 

Our hearts, our hopes, our prayers, our tears, 
Our faith triumphant o'er our fears, 

Are all with thee - are all with thee! 

- Longfellow. 

— o — 

The Soul Stealer * 

By Bro. W.J. BARCLAY, Canada 

Bro. Barclay will be remembered for his "A Woman of Naphtali," in THE BUILDER 
February last. The present tale, founded on an actual incident, was sent to The 
Square, Vancouver, B. C., for Canadian publication, and to these pages for 
publication in the United States. 

CAPTAIN NORWOOD leaned on the bride rail of the whaler Aurora as the good 
ship plowed her way through the Polar Sea. He was in high spirits, for another two 
hundred barrels of oil would complete his cargo. It was the second summer of his 
present voyage. After wintering at Herschel Island, he had taken his ship to Siberian 
waters, and though his luck had been good, it had not equalled that of the other ships 
of the fleet. Now he was on his way to meet the whales coming down the west coast 
of Banks Land, with the confident expectation of filling up and getting out of the 
Arctic before the freeze-up. 

Chasing the big bow-heads in these northern waters is a good deal of a gamble. There 
is a regular sequence of feeding grounds known to whalers where their prey is to be 
followed and - sometimes - found. In May and June it is off the Kamschatkan coast, 
then it is through the Behring Straits to Northern Siberia; after that it is down the west 
coast of Banks Land, and finally it is westwardly along the Canadian mainland. By 
this time it would be September, and the course of the whales would be into the far, 
unknown regions of the Beaufort Sea. That would end the season, for no whaler, 
however keen, would dare to follow them up there in the shortening days and 
gathering storms of winter's approach. 

From his position on the bridge, Captain Norwood looked out over the sea. The 
evening sun was dipping towards the horizon in the north. Sea and sky were full of 
color - purple and blue in blending shades, with a background of blazing orange and 
gold where the orb of day (or, rather, of night, in that region) shone through a hazy 
atmosphere. The lavish hand of the Great Architect withheld nothing from His 
bountiful display of beauty because so few of His creatures were there to see and 

In the waist of the Aurora half a dozen Eskimos, hired at Herschel Island to help in 
the tensing and boiling down, were seated on the deck listening to old Qivitok tell 
stories of the supernatural, so eagerly relished by these primitive folk - how the 
magician Kumagdlak destroyed a band of attacking enemies by shooting them with 
arrows that had bone points made from the small of men's legs, and how he made the 
arrows of his enemies swerve in their flight by waving the thong of the bag his 
mother had carried him in on her back when he was a baby. 

The keen eyes of Captain Norwood picked up a distant object some points off the 
starboard bow. He 

* This story is founded on an incident related by Captain Norwood, of the Arctic 
whaling fleet, to Bro. T.R. Moulton, of the Customs Service, Vancouver, while Bro. 
Moulton was in the government employ in Northern Canada. 

turned his glasses on the object, and found, as he had expected, that it was an Eskimo 
in his kayak. 

"That fellow's a long way off shore," he remarked to the mate, who had just come 
upon the bridge. 

"And he's headed out - not in," added the mate. "Those critters are sure a fearless, 
venturesome breed in their own environment." 

But Eskimos out fishing were no novel sight to him, and the mate presently 
descended to the main deck to direct some work. Captain Norwood continued to 
regard the kayak with languid interest. 


Suddenly his interest quickened, and he straightened up from his leaning posture, and 
again put the glasses to his eyes. The occupant of the kayak, who had laid his double- 
ended paddle across the little craft, was, with freed arms, making a sign - a sign 
startlingly out of place in that lonely Arctic sea. 

Captain Norwood was puzzled and perplexed. But perhaps it was accidental? It must 
be accidental, he argued to himself. An Eskimo! How could an Eskimo make such a 

In his uncertainty he continued to watch through his glasses. Then, for the second 
time, the sign was given. It was no accident! The kayak was now close a-bearn and 
plainly visible, pointed to cross the Aurora's course. Undoubtedly, the Eskimo had 
made the sign meaningly. He had made it towards the ship distinctly. However absurd 
the situation might appear, from whatever source the man in the kayak had learned 
the sign, there was no mistaking his action, 

What was to be done about it? Captain Norwood remembered the night, long ago in 
far off British Columbia, when he had been taught in a Masonic lodge never to 
disregard that sign, for it would surely be-token a fellow creature in distress. He 
pushed a lever, a bell rang in the engine room, the throbbing machinery ceased to 

All on board turned in surprise to look at the bridge. Then sailors and Eskimos 
crowded to the ship's side to watch the near approaching kayak. 

"Get that man on board. Mister!" ordered the captain, as the kayak drew alongside. 

"Aye, aye, sir!" responded the mate, giving the necessary instructions to the crew. 

Then began a shouting and clamour of tongues among the ship's Eskimos, who 
evidently recognized the newcomer: 

"It is Sorqak, the soul stealer!" 

"Send him away!" 

"White men, do not let him come on board!" 

They crowded about the mate, but he shoved them aside, and in their own tongue 
ordered them away, emphasizing his words by swinging a rope's end in the air. 

A kayak is the crankiest craft that floats on water, and there was some difficulty in 
fulfilling the captain's orders. However, the Eskimo unlaced the thongs that bound 
the skin cover around his body, and with the help of one of the crew who went over 
the side on a rope ladder, he was assisted up to the deck. The kayak only weighed a 
few pounds, and it, too, was hauled on board. 

The newcomer was an elderly man with long hair heavily streaked with grey. He was 
apparently strong and in good health, but his face was haggard and deeply lined. He 
smiled a wan smile as he stepped aboard amidst his excited and unfriendly fellow- 

Captain Norwood regarded his strange visitor for a few seconds with curious interest. 
Then, remembering that his ship was stopped, he signalled to the engine room, and 
once more the Aurora proceeded on her way. 

Coming from the bridge, Captain Norwood called to the Eskimo, who stood 
uncertainly beside the mate, "Apuren!" (come). Then he led him to his cabin, and the 
mate took charge again on the bridge, wondering at the sudden interest his captain 
was evincing in a stray Eskimo picked up at sea for no earthly reason that he could 

Captain Norwood had spent twenty-five seasons in the Arctic. He had acquired a fair 
working knowledge of the Eskimo tongue during the long idle winter night and short 
hard working summer day, for every whale ship has a number of these northern 
people engaged as hunters in winter and helpers in summer. He knew some of the 
curious beliefs of these people. He knew that an Eskimo believes every person to 
consist of three things - a soul, a body and a name; that the soul lives outside the 
person, but follows it as a shadow follows a man in the sunshine; that, nevertheless, 
the two are inseparable as long as the person lives; that only great magicians can see 
the soul, which is smaller but looks exactly like the person, and that if it gets lost, or 
if some magician steals it, the person will pine away and die. 

On reaching the cabin, Captain Norwood closed the door and seated himself. The 
Eskimo, unused to such surroundings, diffidently remained standing. 

"They called you Sorqak, the soul stealer?" questioned the captain. 

"My name is Sorqak; but they speak lies - 1 do not steal souls." 

"Where do you come from, anyway?" 

"You saw my sign, White Man, and I will tell you. I am of the Kogmolik people, as 
are Qivotok and the others?' 

"You are a long way from your home?" 


"I am," answered the Eskimo. "They drove me out of the tribe because they said I 
took away the soul of Avunang, who walked over a cliff and fell into the sea. 
Avunang was sick, and because I am an Angekoq (a subduer of spirits - a magician) 
and had cured many people when they were sick, the wife and brothers of Avunang 
came to me. They brought presents and I promised to ask the help of my spirit. My 
spirit must have been a long way off, for I fasted and beat upon the drum and called 
his name until I was weary, weary. Then my eyes closed and my hands hung down. I 
found myself in a deep ravine down which poured a great waterfall. I knew I was on 
the way to the underworld. I followed the ravine a long, long way. Down under the 
earth it widened out suddenly and I found myself in a country with a thick dark blue 
sky over me. It was not light there as it is up here. The sun was smaller and paler 
than the sun on earth. It was winter there, but there was no snow; it never snowed. 

Ice lay over the sea. I saw three men pushing their sledge over the smooth ice; they 
had no dogs. One of the men was my father; the other two I did not know. They told 
me it was pleasant down there. There were plenty of seals walruses and narwhals. 
They invited me to go to a river where there were many salmon. When we had 
walked a long distance my father pointed to a ravine down which I had come and 
said, 'Turn back unless you wish to remain here.' Just then I saw the soul of Avunang 
walking on the ice. I grasped it and ran towards the ravine; but the two men ran after 

me and tore away the soul of Avunang. When I returned to earth the relatives of 
Avunang cursed me. The sick man had risen from his bed shouting 'Sorqak! Sorqak!' 
and had run to the cliff and fallen over. They said I had stolen his soul to make 
greater magic. They were afraid and drove me from the village with stones and 

The Eskimo paused, and there was silence in the cabin for a time. Captain Norwood's 
pipe had gone out. He lit it again before speaking. Then he asked: 

"And what do you want to do now, Sorqak?" 

"White Man," answered the Eskimo, "I have wandered to the eastward ever since the 
Great Warmer (the sun) has come back to the sky. I am weary of seeing no faces of 
men or of women and children. When your great ship comes to another people set 
me ashore among them. I do not want to go back." 

"But the sign, Sorqak, where did you learn that sign?" 

"When I was a young man, before my father died, he taught me many things. He 
taught me the sign, and he said that his father before had taught him that when in 
great difficulty or danger the sign should be made." 

There was silence in the cabin again for a while as Captain Norwood puffed 
thoughtfully at his pipe. Then he turned to the Eskimo: 

"When we come to the shore of Omeurak (Banks Land) and find the people who live 
there, I will give you food and a new seal spear and I will set you among them." 

The face of the Eskimo lightened up. He smiled and said: 

"You are good to me, my brother." 

— o — 

Chapters of Masonic History 


IN Part X of the present series of brief studies I gave a sketch of the organization of 
"the Mother Grand Lodge of the world," formed in London, 1717; and in this 
department last month gave a similar account of the founding of the Ancient Grand 
Lodge. This account could not be complete without some word concerning the 
formation of other Grand Lodges, especially since two of them functioned in England 
itself. I shall begin with the Grand Lodge at York, known as 


Many of the earliest legends and traditions of the Craft cluster about the time- 
hallowed city of York so that to this day it is a revered name amongst us, and familiar 
also, especially in the United States where we hear mention every day of the (mis- 
named) York Rite. According to an old legend, Edwin called a General Assembly of 
Masons at York in 926, but this is generally doubted, and that because there are no 
records to prove it. But we do know that for at least two centuries Operative Masonry 

was better organized in York than in most countries, and we have still in existence the 
old Fabric Rolls in which was kept a record of the building of York Minster, to show 
us what manner of men the old Masons were and how they conducted their affairs; 
these "Rolls", or records, cover the years 1350 - 1639. 

It is probable that a lodge organized by those Operative Masons continued on long 
after their work was finished. According to Hughan the records show that at least as 
early as 1643 a lodge was in existence there. This lodge, like so many others, 
succumbed in the course of time to pressure, and began to admit "gentlemen 
Masons", i.e., men who had no intention of practicing Operative Masonry, and this 
"Speculative" element came in time to dominate, so that shortly after the beginning of 
the eighteenth century it assumed entire control. According to an inventory made in 
1779 the lodge possessed at that time a MS. book containing records beginning with 
March 7, 1705 - 6, but this precious volume was somehow lost, and seems now 
beyond recovery. The existing lodge minutes go back to 1712, which was five years 
prior to the founding of the first Grand Lodge. At that time it would seem that there 
was in York one "Mother Lodge", described in latter years, but inaccurately, as 
having been a Grand Lodge, and that this lodge chartered others; but even so it 
evidently possessed little strength because the "Mother Lodge" held no meetings at 
all, at least so far as the records show, during the years 1717-1721. An awakening 
came after a Grand Lodge (properly so called) had been established in London, and 
after a Book of Constitutions had been published. York Masonic assemblies had been 
presided over by a President, but in 1725 the style was changed to "Grand Master", 
and Charles Bathurst was elected to that office; what had been a "private" lodge 
transformed itself into a "Grand Lodge", and adopted the name "Grand Lodge of All 

If there was no open friction between this Grand Body and the Grand Lodge already 
formed there was apparently little or no active cooperation, and in the Grand Lodge of 
All England itself there was not much strength; after it chartered a few lodges (none 
of them outside of England) it ceased gradually to function somewhere between the 
years 1740-1750. Then, after having remained dormant, it was awakened in 1761 to 
new activity, after such manner as the following minute explains: 

"The Ancient and Independent Constitution of Free and Accepted Masons, belonging 
to the City of York, was, this Seventeenth day of March, in the year of our Lord 1761, 
Revived by Six of the Surviving Members of the Fraternity by the Grand Lodge being 
opened, and held at the House of Mr. Henry Howard, in Lendall, in the said City, by 
them and others hereinafter named." 

This revival of the defunct Grand Lodge made possible one interesting episode in the 
history of Grand Lodges, as will later appear, but it proved in the long run abortive, 
and in the course of time the Grand Lodge of All England passed gradually out of 
existence through a process of absorption, perhaps, by the ever growing Grand 
Lodges that had been established in 1717 and in 1751. 

The members of the Ancient Grand Lodge, organized on the latter date, of which an 
account was given last month, desired above all things to claim for themselves as 
great an antiquity as possible; it was for this reason, no doubt, that they fell into the 
habit of describing themselves as "Ancient York Masons"; this was only a dodge, 
without legitimate right or excuse, and it has caused a certain amount of confusion 
since. I have only now, on the day I write, been reading the Proceedings of one 
Grand Lodge in the United States in which this Grand Lodge claims descent from 
York because it was chartered by the "Ancients" and these "Ancients", so it is alleged 
in the volume, were York Masons; they had called themselves so. As a matter of fact 
the York Grand Lodge chartered no lodges in America, and the use of the name 
"York" is in all such cases illegitimate, though it may be accepted by way of paying 
tribute to an ancient Masonic center, and to one of the best loved cities in the world. 
On this matter I shall conclude with a quotation from W.J. Hughan, taken from 
Clegg's Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry, page 1130: 

"All the 'York' Lodges succumbed on the decease of their 'Mother Grand Lodge,' and 
there has not been a representative of the Antient York Grand Lodge anywhere 
whatever, throughout this (19th) century. It never at any time chartered Lodges to 
meet out of England, and was always opposed to the 'Athol Masons' [or ’Ancients'] of 
London, though the latter sometimes did, unfairly, style themselves 'Antient York 
Masons,' a title affected since by several Masonic bodies, with as little authority." 


William Preston, a Scotch printer who came to London in 1760, was made a member 
in 1774 of the Lodge of Antiquity, a "time immemorial body" that held rank (and 
does still) under the Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of 1 7 1 7 as the oldest lodge on 
the list. Because of his zeal, learning and ability, and because of his inauguration of 
the Preston lectures, as well as his writing the famous Illustrations of Masonry (first 
published in 1772) Preston ranks with Desaguliers, Anderson, Dermott and one or 
two others as among the most brilliant names in the history of English Freemasonry. 
(See note.) 

Prior to Preston's admittance to the Lodge of Antiquity that famous old lodge had 
been on the down grade but through his energy, and because he brought a new 
infusion of blood into it by means of the initiation of a number of young men, his own 
leadership soon brought it to a high degree of efficiency once again. 

This work attracted the attention of Grand Lodge so that he was made assistant Grand 
Secretary, James Heseltine being Grand Secretary. Heseltine believed that a new 
edition of the Constitutions of Grand Lodge should be published so he engaged 
Preston to take up the task. After he had done so, and the book was about ready for 
publication, Heseltine suddenly insisted that Noorthouck, Treasurer of the Lodge of 
Antiquity, should be given an equal share in the enterprise. Preston resented this and 
as a result fell into a quarrel with both brethren, especially with Heseltine, who was 
not noted for an irenic disposition. 

While these feelings were still hot Preston was inadvertently and innocently led into a 
violation of Grand Lodge rules, a thing that happened after this wise. On Dec. 27, 
1777, Preston led his lodge to divine service at St. Dunstan's Church, Fleet street; the 
service ended he and his brethren, attired in their aprons and gloves, walked a few 
yards across to the Mitre Tavern. Now it happens that in 1747 Grand Lodge has 
passed a resolution prohibiting all public processions except with the express consent 
of the Grand Master, therefore the Lodge of Antiquity had become guilty of a 
technical violation of the rules. 

Heseltine immediately pounced upon this as a means of getting a thrust at Preston. In 
making a reply Preston stepped into a trap by taking the position that since Antiquity 
Lodge possessed a "time immemorial" charter and had not been brought into 
existence by Grand Lodge, it had a right to regulate its own domestic affairs. This 
furnished Heseltine and his friends with a new weapon that they were not slow to use; 
Preston was expelled by Grand Lodge. 

Upon this the Lodge of Antiquity split in two. That portion headed by Preston and 
his friends immediately applied for a deputation from the Grand Lodge of All 
England (at York: see above) and thereupon set themselves up as a new Grand Lodge, 
using the style, Grand Lodge of All England South of the River Trent; it was 
constituted Nov. 15, 1779. 

The history of this baby Grand Body is as short as the simple annals of the poor. 
Preston says that it warranted several lodges but thus far only two such warrantings 
have been verified. The move was evidently out of joint with the times. After a few 
years, during which Preston largely lost interest in Masonry, he succeeded in getting a 
memorial considered by Grand Lodge and, after he had made his repentance, was in 
May 1789 restored to full standing in Grand Lodge. Upon this the Grand Lodge of 
All England South of the River Trent passed out of existence. It left no mark behind 
it on the developments of the Craft and was never at any time anything more than a 
private schism. 


Next in seniority to the Grand Lodge of 1717, and sharing with it and with Scotland 
the lion's share of establishing world-wide Freemasonry, is the Grand Lodge of 
Ireland. There was a time when little was known about Irish Freemasonry, especially 
of the eighteenth century, but such ceased to be the case upon the publication of Dr. 
W.J. Chetwode Crawley's Caementaria Hibernica ("The Freemasonry of Ireland"), a 
magnificent work which ranks with Gould's larger history as to its scholarship but far 

surpasses that massive production in the grace and appeal of literary art - a thing in 
which Dr. Crawley easily stands supreme among the greater historians of the Craft. 

Dr. Crawley, to whom the present paragraphs are almost entirely-indebted, shows that 
Freemasonry was well known in Ireland at least as early as 1688, and that at a very 
early date (comparatively speaking) the type of ritual later adopted by the Grand 
Lodge of 1717 was practiced by Irish Masons. One of the proofs of this is found in 
the records of the initiation of Miss St. Leger, the most famous of all "lady 
Freemasons." Her case shows, first, that a Speculative Lodge was working at 
Doneraile in 1710; second, that two degrees were then practiced; and third, that the 
initiatory ceremonies were strikingly similar to those employed after the "Revival" in 


Early in that century two Grand Lodges flourished side by side in Ireland, one of 
them, with its headquarters at Cork, being the Grand Lodge of Munster; little is 
known about the beginnings of either one of them, but a record shows that the 
Monster body was in action at least as early as 1726, and that it had at that time at 
least one subordinate body, of which minutes are extant of date Feb. 2, 1726. One 
very interesting feature of these minutes is that they mention the appointment of 
deacons, the first such mention in the history of the Craft. Scotland had employed 
deacons in the century preceding but of a different kind. On this subject Dr. Crawley 
wrote a paragraph important to be read: 

"We must carefully distinguish between the Deacon of the early Scottish Minute 
Books and the Deacon of the Irish Ritual. The former occupied almost, if not 
altogether, the highest post among his Brethren, having precedence over the Warden, 
and presiding over the meeting when occasion required. The latter held the lowest 
official position in the lodge, and was mainly concerned with ritual. The former 
correspond to the Dean (i.e., Deacon) of Faculty, the latter to the lowest order of the 
ministry, the Deacon of ecclesiastical parlance. The similarity does not go beyond 
the name." 

In 1733 the Grand Lodge of Munster ceased to exist by absorption or fusion, 
probably, with the Grand Lodge of Ireland, having headquarters at Dublin. So little is 
known about the founding of this Grand Body that we must rest content with knowing 
that by 1725 it was in full swing because in that year it had as Grand Master, Richard, 
1st Earl of Rosse. It appears that the Munster lodges came under its authority in 173 1 
or thereabouts and as a result of the influence of the Grand Lodge of Ireland's third 
Grand Master, James, 4th Baron Kingston. 

In 1 805 one Alexander Seton led a revolt, growing out of a quarrel that had to do 
with the Higher Degrees, and with some friends and abbettors set up a schismatic 
Grand Lodge of Ulster. This distracted the activities of Ireland for nine years only, 

The close relations between English and Irish Freemasonry at that early date is shown 
by the first Book of Constitutions published in Ireland; this was compiled by John 
Pennel, Grand Secretary at Dublin, and was an almost exact counterpart of the 
Anderson Constitutions of 1723. In 1751 a Book of Constitutions, properly revised 
for Irish uses, was prepared by Edward Spratt, Grand Secretary; this version, as noted 
in the preceding chapter of the present series, served as a model for Laurence 
Dermotf s Ahiman Rezon. 

In addition to being the first section of the general Craft to employ deacons the Grand 
Lodge of Ireland is also notable in that it was the first to grant a lodge warrant, as we 
now understand the term, when such an instrument was granted to the First Lodge of 
Ireland in 1731; and also in that it was the first to grant ambulatory warrants, i.e., 
warrants for military and naval lodges, a fact that afterwards played an incalculable 
part in the developments of Freemasonry at large. 


The history of Freemasonry in Scotland is a subject of peculiar value to the Masonic 
student because it makes more clear than that of any other country just how Operative 
Masonry gradually evolved into what we have come to call Speculative Freemasonry, 

because in Scotland, more than in Ireland or England, the records are less broken. By 
dint of piecing one scrap of information with another one can gain a pretty complete 
picture of the whole process. 

What York is in the traditions of the English Craft Kilwinning is to Scotland. 
According to one old book "a number of Freemasons came from the Continent to 
build a monastery at Kilwinning and with them an architect or Master Mason to 
superintend and carry on the work. This architect resided at Kilwinning, and being a 
gude and true Mason, intimately acquainted with all the arts and parts of Masonry, 
known on the continent, was chosen Master of the meetings of the brethren all over 
Scotland. He gave rules for the conduct of the brethren at these meetings, and 
decided finally in appeals from all the other meetings or lodges in Scotland." (Quoted 
from Clegg's Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry, page 663.) Kilwinning 
Abbey was in the County of Ayr, on the southwest coast of Scotland, about twenty- 
five miles from Glasgow, and was founded in 1 140 by Hugh de Morville. 

This is the basis of the "Kilwinning tradition" and as such was accepted by the author 
of Laurie's History of Freemasonry; but D. Murray Lyon, the chief authority of 
Scottish Masonic history (see his History of the Lodge of Edinburgh), attacked it, and 
with so much success that it has been pretty well abandoned, at least by general 

The oldest admittedly authentic Constitutions used by the Scotch draft are "The 
Statutes and Ordinances to be observed by all the Master Masons within the realm; 
set down by William Schaw, Master of Work to his Majesty and General Warden of 
the said Craft with the consent of the Masters hereafter specified:' 

These Ordinances are found in the minutes of the Lodge of Edinburgh, also called St. 
Mary's Chapel, which fill six volumes, extend from Dec. 28, 1598, to Nov. 29, 1869, 
and contain other material of incalculable value. Along with the Schaw Statutes must 
be placed, as of almost equal importance, the St. Clair Charters. The former of these 
two precious documents was evidently written in 1600 or 1601, and was signed by 
William Schaw. This document sets it forth that whereas the Lords of Roslin had 

from "age to age" been considered the official patrons and governors of the Craft in 
Scotland, and whereas they had become negligent the Craft had, by universal consent 
of all Masons, agreed that henceforth William Sinclair should become "their patron 
and judge under the King." The second St. Clair charter is largely confirmatory of the 
first, and was written, so it is believed, about 1628. 

A fourth important document in Scottish history is the "Edinburgh Kilwinning MS." 
This was used by the Kilwinning Lodge in the seventeenth century and also by lodges 
founded by Kilwinning, which was a "Mother Lodge," chartering subordinate bodies 
in something like the fashion later employed by Grand Lodges. The important point 
about this Manuscript is that it is a close copy of an English Manuscript Constitution, 
thereby implying that even at that early date the influence of English freemasonry 
was being felt in the northern Kingdom. 

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries many non-Operatives, often lords of high 
position, were admitted members in Scotch lodges; these non-Operatives exercised a 
deep influence on the Craft, as had been the case in England; and also, as in England, 
this non-Operative element came in time to dominate, so that by the beginning of the 
eighteenth century a definite movement set in toward a complete transformation of 
the institution. This tendency was doubtless greatly stimulated in 1721 when Dr. 
John Theophilus Desaguliers, who had played so important a part in the founding of 
the first Grand Lodge at London in 1717, visited the lodge at Edinburgh. Two 
meetings were held during his visit at which non-Operatives of high station were 
entered and passed. The minutes of these meetings, according to Lyon, 

"render it probable that taking advantage of his social position, he had influenced the 
attendance of the Provost and Magistrates of Edinburgh and the other city magnates 
who accompanied them as applicants for Masonic fellowship in order to give a 
practical illustration of the system with which his name was so closely associated 
with a view to its commending itself for adoption by the Grand Lodges of Scotland." 

On Sept. 29, 1735, Canongate Kilwinning Lodge appointed a committee for "framing 
a proposal to be laid before the several lodges in order to the choosing of a Grand 

Master for Scotland." To further this project in August of the following year John 
Douglas of the Lodge of Kirkcaldy was made a member of Canongate Kilwinning 
and then appointed Secretary in order to make out "a scheme for bringing about a 
Grand Master for Scotland." Meanwhile it had been arranged that the four lodges of 
Edinburgh should hold counsel looking toward the same end, and as a result four 
lodges, Mary's Chapel, Canongate Kilwinning, Kilwinning Scots Arms, and Leith 
Kilwinning, assembled at Edinburgh, Oct. 15, 1736. Other meetings were held, and 
the project was brought before all the lodges in Scotland. Out of about one hundred 
lodges thirty-three assembled in Edinburgh Nov. 30, 1736, and there formed 
themselves into a Grand Lodge. 

According to the traditions embodied in the St. Clair MSS. the real chief authority of 
the Craft was embodied in that family; but at the assembly just referred to, William 
St. Clair presented a formal document in which he relinquished all claims to any such 
jurisdiction. He was immediately elected Grand Master. 

Thereafter nearly all the lodges in Scotland applied for warrants from the new 
authority, although for several years thereafter many of them retained their Operative 

From this very brief account - altogether too brief to present an adequate picture of 
the founding of the Grand Lodge of Scotland - it will be seen that in Scotland the 
transition from Operative to Speculative Freemasonry was made gradually. And 
while English Speculative Freemasonry undoubtedly exercised considerable influence 
in that process there was never at any time any appeal to the Grand Lodge of England 
for official warrants. Bro. Clegg, in his Revised Mackey's History of Freemasonry, 
has given a succinct statement of this important fact in a paragraph excellent to be 

"The Freemasonry of Scotland produced from its own Operative Lodges its 
Speculative Grand Lodge, precisely us was the case with the Freemasonry of 
England. In this respect it has differed from the Freemasonry of every other country 
where the Operative element never merged into the Speculative. The latter was 

always a direct and independent importation from the Speculative Grand Lodge of 
England, wholly distinct from the Operative Freemasonry existing at the same time." 

Note. See Study Club article for April, 1924; also article on Preston in same issue. 


(Mackey's Encyclopedia (Revised Edition) 

Ahiman Rezon, 37; Aitchison's-Haven Lodge, 42; Aitchison's-Haven Manuscript, 42; 
Bruce, Robert, 121; Bums, Robert, 124; Chapel, Mary's, 142; Deacon, 197; 
Desaguliers, 207; Drake, Francis, 220; Ecossais, 228; Grand Lodge, 306; Harodim, 
Grand Chapter of, 319; Ireland, 357; Kilwinning, 381; Kilwinning Manuscript, 382; 
Lawrie, Alexander, 427; Manuscripts, Old, 464; Preston, William, 579; Ramsay, 
Andrew Michael, 607; Schaw Manuscript, 666; Schaw, William, 667; Scotland, 671; 
St. Clair Charters, 715; St. Clair, William, 716; York Constitutions, 866; York Grand 
Lodge, 867; York Legend, 867. 


A.Q.C. (on Ireland), VIII, 53, 79, 110, 172; IX, 4, 18, 153; X, 58, 111; XI, 190; XII, 
164, 167; XIII, 130, 142; XV, 100; XVI, 69, 174; XVII, 93, 137, 230; XXI, 58, 181; 
XXIV, 68; XXVI, 131, 196. A.Q.C. (on Scotland), I, 10, 139, 193; II, 164; III, 172; 
VI, 69, 108; VII, 56, 101, 137; VIII, 4, 45; IX, 171; XI, 195; XIV, 131; XIV, 131, 
177; XXIV, 30. Caementaria Hibernica, W.J. Chetwode Crawley. Collected Essays 
on Freemasonry, R.F. Gould. Concise History of Freemasonry, R.F. Gould. Early 
History and Records of the Lodge, Aberdeen 1 ter, A.L. Miller. Grand Lodge of 
England, A.F. Calvert. History of Freemasonry, Findel. History of Freemasonry, R.F 
Gould. History of Freemasonry, Laurie. History of Freemasonry in York, Hughan. 
History of the Mother Lodge, Kilwinning, Robert Wylie. Illustrations of Masonry, 

William Preston. Irish Master Masons Handbook, Fred J.W. Crowe. Mackey's 
Revised History of Freemasonry, Clegg. Unpublished Records of the Craft, Hughan. 

— o — 


A Word to New Members of the National Masonic Research Society; With an Extra 
Word or Two for Old Members 

YOU brethren who have recently come into the family of the National Masonic 
Research Society from The National Trestle Board, and also those of you - a goodly 
number - who have joined our circle during the past year or so will find it worth your 
while to draw up to the table for a few minutes in order to learn what the Society and 
THE BUILDER "are all about." In case this telling of what it is about fails to touch 
upon some point about which you feel curiosity write us a letter. We have no secrets. 

The National Masonic Research Society, as its name clearly indicates, is a society, 
not a private commercial enterprise owned by some individual or group of stock 
holders for profit. It began in 1915 as a voluntary association of individual Masons, 
drawn from all the Rites, willing to pay their own way, to the end that many active 
and studious Masons "that must have remained at a perpetual distance" might have a 
"center of union, and the means of conciliating true friendship" in their activities. In 
the management of this organization every member is entitled to a voice and a vote. 

The Board of Stewards, which functions in somewhat the same capacity as a board of 
directors, is elected from the membership, five each year. Prior to the annual meeting 
of the Society held last October every member received a personal letter inviting him 
to attend; hereafter such notices will be published in THE BUILDER at a date 
sufficiently in advance. 

The President, elected annually by the Board of Stewards, presides at the annual 
meeting and during the year handles such matters as are appropriate to that office. 

The Vice-President presides in event of the President's absence. The Board of 
Stewards may be called together by the President at any time or place necessity may 
demand, and according to a bylaw recently adopted, stewards may vote by mail on 
such questions as are not sufficiently important to warrant calling a meeting. The 
General Secretary acts as secretary to the President and Board of Stewards and takes 
care of such correspondence as has to do with matters of general policy. The 
Executive Secretary has charge of the publication of THE BUILDER, of all business 
matters, the book department, the membership department, and all activities involving 
the expenditure of money; he is the Society's business manager. Literary and 
educational activities and the editing of THE BUILDER are in charge of an editor-in- 
chief appointed by the Executive Secretary. 

Neither the Executive Secretary nor any other officer receives pay, and such salaries 
as are received by employees are either nominal or according to the usual standards. 
Business affairs are managed with the utmost economy in order that every dollar 
received from dues (your dues) can do its full stint toward carrying on the services 
being rendered by the Society to the Masonic Fraternity. 

Membership is open to every Master Mason in good standing in any country of the 
world. The present membership list, now larger than it has ever been before, shows 
names from every country in the habitable globe. Membership is taken out for one 
year at a time, dues payable in advance. 

THE BUILDER is the official journal of the Society, and is not in any sense a 
commercial magazine. It is sent monthly to each member as one of the prerogatives of 
his membership, and every member is invited to a voice in its editing and is asked to 
over constructive criticism, or otherwise help to make it as representative and 
valuable as possible. It is not an organ of personal opinion or of any one school of 
Masonic thought as against any other school. Contributions are accepted or rejected 
solely on the ground of their general merit, and then regardless of the school of 
Masonic opinion expressed, so that the journal can act as a free and fraternal forum of 

Masonic thought and activities. The editor-in-chief is assisted by a board of associate 
editors, and by a large number of other individuals, each a specialist in his own field. 

The book department is maintained as a convenience to members so that they may be 
enabled to secure new or second hand Masonic literature at the least possible expense 
and with the least risk of spending money for useless material. Whatever a Mason 
may need to know about Masonic books is furnished gratis, and always with cordial 

Masonic periodicals, Grand Lodge Proceedings, pamphlets, etc., are clipped each 
week and these clippings are loaned on request for study or speech making purposes. 
At present writing clippings on nearly 20,000 topics are available. 

From its inception the Society has been active in the promotion of all forms of 
Masonic education, especially in the form of study clubs. It co-operates with any 
individual, group, or Masonic body in organizing study clubs and then continues to 
assist them as long as they function. A department of THE BUILDER is devoted to 
these clubs. 

In addition to this the Society has formed several groups of students for special work 
in Masonic research, the members of which maintain contact through the mails; some 
of these groups are soon to be ready to publish their findings in book form. Any 
member desirous of associating with such a group or of organizing one himself may 
do so by addressing a letter to the editor-in-chief. 

The Society is giving a great deal of assistance to authors, or prospective authors. 
Where a man is qualified for such work he is assisted to secure the necessary data and 
literature; his manuscript is criticized; and he is then assisted to find a publisher and a 
market. During the week immediately preceding this writing three such manuscripts 
were sent to headquarters. 

In all these activities the Society is assisted in all ways by the Iowa Masonic Library, 
with its unmatched resources and equipment; of its staff three brethren are members 
of our official family. 

One of the largest of the activities at headquarters is replying to requests for 
information concerning Freemasonry. If a question is possible of answer the Society, 
through its worldwide membership, can find the answer. This service is given gratis 
to all members. 

In order to give the reader some conception of the ground covered by these requests 
for information 100 letters were taken at random from the mail reaching Ye Editor's 
desk during one week and classified with the following results: 

Inquiries about the Blue Lodge, 1; Cryptic Masonry, 1; Scottish Rite, 4; other bodies, 
3; foreign Masonry, 2; history, ritual and symbolism, 10; speeches, 7; architecture, 8; 
books, 20; authorship, 2; jurisprudence, 2; is such and such a man a Mason, 6; social 
affairs in lodges, 2; request for publication, 1; clippings sent for filing by Society, 3; 
study clubs, 3 ; comment on items published in THE BUILDER, contributions 
offered, 20; Roman Catholicism, 1; literature wanted, 1; unclassified, 13. This total 
shows that several letters contained more than one request for information. 

The purpose of giving all this information to you, Brother New Member, is to tell you 
that this service is put at your disposal. Avail yourself of it at your need. If you desire 
to find a place for yourself among those engaged in special research or otherwise to 
lend a hand to the enterprise of Masonic education let us know. If you find that your 
Masonic friends are interested in such work nominate them for membership by 
sending a letter to THE BUILDER. 


Here, in democratic America, we can boast of no Order of the Bath or Garter, no 
ribbon of the Legion of Honor or Iron Cross; but there may well be reason for asking 
whether decorations of merit created by 100,000 or 500,000 or 1,000,000 members of 
an organization founded to alleviate suffering, to inculcate good morals, loyalty to 
country, and to do good unto others - whether such an Order Of merit is not as 
honorable as one created by prince or potentate who links his name with ribbon, 
cross, or wreath? The former are the outgivings of armies which meet in private, but 
whose purposes of benevolence and peace are known of all, mighty influences for the 
spread of true fraternity. They are often hardly less resplendent than decorations 
conferred by royalty, but are often more worthily bestowed. - Stevens' Cyclopedia of 

* * * 


The March BUILDER contained more than its share of errors, most of which were 
slight enough, but sufficiently irritating for all that. No "alibis" are offered. 

At bottom of first page, left side, "transcontinental" should have been 
"transcendental," which makes quite a difference; and "Admis" ( God save the 
mark! ) should have been our old friend "Adonis". Beg your pardon, Bro. Meekren! 

The Latin quotation on page 100, April issue, should have read Mandatum novum do 
vobis, a typographical slip. Beg pardon, Ye Editor! 

An item concerning John Ross Robertson appeared in Ye Editor's corner for 
November that was based on a clipping from a Canadian Grand Lodge Proceedings; it 
appears that the information was erroneous. Bro. William Harvey McNairn, of 
McMaster University, Toronto, has kindly supplied accurate data, as follows: 

"John Ross Robertson was not a knight but had the extraordinary honor of being able 
to decline a knighthood and a senatorship (which with us goes by appointment) upon 
the same day. He did not bequeath his library to the Grand Lodge, but to the Toronto 
Public Library, which however subsequently handed it over to the Grand Lodge. Our 
friend Bro. N.W.J. Hay don is at present librarian." 

* * * 


The Lodge of Edinburgh, No. 1, has records and membership rolls dating back to 
1599, and has been in continuous activity since. The Grand Lodge of Scotland was 
organized in 1736, nineteen years after that of England, which was organized in 1717 
and is the mother Grand Lodge of the world. 

— o — 


An Interpretation of the Blue Lodge Work 

DEGREES,” by H. L. Haywood, Editor THE BUILDER; published by George H. 
Doran Company, New York as Vol. 1, M.S.A. National Masonic Library. May be 
purchased through the National Masonic Research Society, 1950 Railway Exchange, 
St. Louis, Mo. Blue cloth, 360 pages, index, questions for discussion. Price, $2.15 

FREEMASONRY is the Science of Morality, veiled in Allegory, and illustrated by 
Symbols." This famous old definition of Freemasonry, for which we are indebted to 
Dr. Hemming. I believe, specifies three outstanding features. Masonry is first of all an 
ethical system, but its teachings are not spread out on the printed page for the 
wayfaring man, though a fool, to glance at and forget; they are, on the contrary, 
veiled, hidden from all but those who earnestly seek, by a series of allegories, or 
stories of traditional history, which of themselves are interesting and beautiful. And 
permeating the whole, like the grains of pure gold in a quartz vein, are the 
incomparable symbols by means of which the lofty ethical principles are illustrated 
and taught. It follows then, that he who would discover the quintessence of 
Freemasonry must diligently seek the elucidation of its rich symbolism. 

Upon this simple foundation has been erected the noble structure of the Craft, a 
temple rich in many an echoing aisle, and adorned with countless storied memorials 
of an unforgotten past. Many there are who enter its portals, and though impressed 
with its beauty, see not beneath it all the firm foundation of moral teaching, overlaid 
with a rich and beautiful symbolism, which supports the whole structure. Without 
this, the superstructure would be but a flimsy erection, to be demolished by the first 
adverse breath, like a castle of cards. But founded on this underpinning, it has grown 
into a noble fame, which has already braved the storms of uncounted winters, and 
which promises to continue as long as men live out their little lives of struggle and 

He then, who directs our attention, and guides our reflection to a study of those 
symbols which support the whole Masonic structure, is a benefactor of the first rank, 
even though the exposition be bare and unadorned. But what shall we say when the 
noble thoughts implied in this rich symbolism are embodied in a diction of limpid 
clarity and great beauty! This great achievement has been accomplished by Bro. H. L. 

Haywood in his recent book, Symbolical Masonry. We had read most of it piecemeal 
as it appeared in THE BUILDER, but the unity of the whole is best appreciated in the 
book, and indeed, it has to a considerable extent been re-written and much new 
material has been added. 

That this book is. destined to be a great success seems to be a foregone conclusion. 
Other books on Masonic symbolism have been written, but none of them in so 
convenient and attractive a form. The format, the paper, the letter-press, the binding 
are all of a dignity so often lacking in Masonic books. 

But this book is not merely calculated for quiet reading by the study fire; it is 
especially well adapted for the use of study classes, and indeed, this is its primary 
object as the author clearly intimates in the opening pages. The arrangement of the 
subject matter facilitates this, and an appendix of questions to aid in systematic study, 
and a full and well-arranged index, completes the volume. 

The work begins with a history of the Craft of remarkable clearness and conciseness. 
All the important points are adequately touched upon, and yet the whole is 
compressed within the compass of twenty-three pages, closing with these noble 

"Such, in brief, is the story of Freemasonry. What a story it is! It began in a far 
foretime in a few tiny rivulets of brotherly effort; these united into a current that 
swept with healing waters across the pagan centuries; many tributaries augmented its 
stream during the Middle Ages, and in modem times it has become a mighty river 
which sweeps on irresistibly. And now, if I may venture to change the figure, its halls 
are homes of light and life; therein men may learn how to live the life that is life 
indeed. Well may one unclasp his shoes and uncover his head as he enters a Masonic 
lodge; a symbolism white with an unutterable age is there, and voices eloquent with 
an old, old music, and a wisdom drawn from the thought and travail of a thousand 

The author then carries us through the three steps in Freemasonry, explaining the 
various symbols as they arise during the neophite's progress from the outer door to the 
full light of the East. This is not done with the cold accuracy of a scientific treatise, 
but with the warmth and vision which the vital interest of the subject so abundantly 
merits. Around the symbols of Freemasonry the author has woven a work of 
literature, at times, and when the occasion warrants, rising to a stately cadence worthy 
of his prophet's vision of the dignity and destiny of the Order, as witness the 
following sentences which close the chapter on "The Lodge": 

"The member who finds the eternal verities growing dim from absorption in the heat 
and burden of his daily task has them made real to him again as he sits in this 
sanctuary surrounded on all sides by the impressive symbols of God, of Truth and of 
Immortality. Truly the body of men thus living and working becomes itself an 
eloquent prophecy of the far-off coming of the Universal Brotherhood, and stands in 
the midst of a warring humanity as an earnest of the good time coming when the 
engines of war and the implements of all contention will be laid aside forever." 

To the beginner in Masonry who desires an explanation of the many strange and 
interesting things he has met in the lodge; to the scholar who requires a convenient 
epitome of Masonic symbolism for handy reference; to the Master of a lodge who 
needs a text book for a study class or from which to draw material for addresses, this 
book will provide all that is necessary. 


* * * 


"A CONCISE HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY,” by Robert Freke Gould. Published 
by Macoy Publishing It Masonic Supply House. Blue cloth, index, addenda, 480 
pages. May be purchased through the National Masonic Research Society. $6.30 

After Bro. Frederick J. W. Crowe's revision of Gould's The Concise History of 
Freemasonry was issued in 1920 by Gale & Polden, Fondon, a long and critical 
review was published in these pages, January 1922, page 23. In that review some 
complaint was made because of the liberties that had been taken with the book as it 
had left Gould's hands. Seventy-five pages or so had been entirely omitted; the reviser 
had incorporated emendations in the text without showing he had done so; the section 
devoted to "The Great Schism" had been entirely replaced without leaving Gould's 
own account standing alongside; and while statistics had been revised no effort had 
been made to bring some of the important items of subject matter down to date at all. 
A reply to these strictures, gracious and candid, was published by Bro. Crowe in THE 
BUIFDER of June of the same year, page 183. 

The new Macoy edition, of which note is now to be made, removes cause for most of 
these complaints, because, as stated in the Preface, "except for statistical changes in 
the latter Chapters, and the insertion, indicated by brackets, of new historical matter 
(to which, in a few places only, Gould's own text has been almost imperceptibly 
accommodated without withdrawing an iota of informative statement on his part); i. 
e., except for bringing the book thoroughly but guardedly up to date, the present issue 
leaves the original Concise History intact." 

About three pages of matter on the Comacine Masters from Bro. Joseph Fort 
Newton's The Builders has been added to chapter two, and in the form of addenda 
Bros. Sidney Morse and Jacob Hugo Tatsch have contributed some paragraphs 
concerning present day Masonic organizations, including the National Masonic 
Research Society, the Masonic Service Association, Quatuor Coronati Fodge of 
Research, etc. Statistics have been revised with the assistance of Bro. Ossian Fang, 
Grand Fodge Historian, New York. 

On one point it may be possible to take issue with the undesignated editor of this new 
edition; he says that "Gould's policy (indicated in his own Preface) of avoiding 
footnotes has been adhered to." Footnotes are a nuisance in a book designed to be 
read seriatim from first to last but Gould's Concise is not that kind of a book; where 
one man reads it so, a dozen use it for reference only, and then in order to gain 
information on some one question. Gould wrote his Preface above referred to in 1903, 
twenty-one years ago, and quoted or otherwise used many books and authors no 
longer familiar to the average Masonic reader, consequently it would now be a real 
help if some information about these sources could be incorporated in footnotes. 

Moreover, the great accumulation of new facts made since 1903 has made obsolete 
some of Gould's opinions and outlawed a few of his arguments; it would be of 
practical advantage to a reader, especially if he is a beginning student, to be assisted 
to detect these by an editor, who could add in succinct form the new knowledge or 
else refer to sources of the same. One of the typical cases of several that come to 
mind is Gould's treatment of the Roman Collegia. It appears that Gould relied for the 
most part on Coote, who wrote his works on early British history long before 
archeologists dug up the bulk of such knowledge as is now available on the Collegia, 
and therefore, in certain fundamentals of this subject he needs revision. The same 
applies to the Rosicrucian question and other such matters of vital importance in the 
historical survey. 

In making this apparatus of critical notes (such as one finds in modem editions of 
Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire) an editor could at the same time 
incorporate all the references to Ars Quatuor Coronatomm, which would in itself be a 
much appreciated service to students who have access to those incomparable sources; 
could give reference to the appropriate pages of Gould's larger History; and at the 
same time could include titles of books valuable on the subjects treated in such wise 
as to furnish a reader a complete bibliography on Masonic history, a thing lacking 
from the book as it now stands. 

Another suggestion may be made. Gould apparently had almost no literary sense; as 
sentences crowded into his mind he wrote them down, crammed them in, and then 
interlarded them with citations, quotations and digressions, of which the last was a 
favorite device, and dangerous as it was favorite, so that the result was a composite of 

numberless facts and confusing ramifications. The present writer, if he is permitted to 
inject a personal word here, has read the book through some ten or twelve times, and 
keeps it ever in reach; it is one of the most useful reference works in existence. But 
alas! all this use has never reconciled him to the literary formlessness of the volume, 
or made it any easier for him to pick his way through the labyrynthine paragraphs. 
Gould appeared to be willing to let the reader get along as he best might; Huxley's 
great dictum, that a writer must not only write so as to make it possible to be 
understood, but so as to make it impossible to be misunderstood, never dawned upon 
our "Masonic Thucydides". 

It would facilitate the use of the book and also add to its salability (here one casts a 
glance toward the publisher) if the whole volume were to be re-chaptered and each 
chapter given a descriptive head. These shorter and more coherently arranged 
chapters could then be further divided by descriptive subheads, all of which could act 
as signboards by the way and thus ease the journey of the traveler through what is to 
most readers a toilsome journey. Such helps as these would in nowise interfere with 
the text itself. 

If a reader is curious to try an experiment let him turn to page 272 of the new Macoy 
edition and try to follow the story. First he is in Irish history; suddenly he is 
catapulted into Scotland; then back suddenly to England, with puzzling digressions 
thrown in; and once again sharply brought back to a mixture of Irish and Scotch. This 
confusion could be well nigh eliminated by a few subheads or sideheads. 

The new edition is convenient to the hand, and printed in good clear type. In its light 
blue cover and gold lettering it appeals to the eye, though the illustrations are about 
the worst ever. It is the most complete of all editions thus far issued of this famous 
classic, and therefore the most useful, especially to American readers. 

* * * 


"EX ORIENTE LUX," by Alfred H. Henry. Published by The Stratford Company, 
Boston, Mass. May be purchased through the National Masonic Research Society, St. 
Louis, Mo. Red Cloth, 248 pages, no index. Price $2.65 postpaid. 

Rosicrucianism is one of the puzzles of history. By whom was it founded, and where? 
what does it teach? how large is its membership? who compose it? He would be a 
patient man indeed, and learned in forgotten literatures, who could offer a hard and 
fast reply to these questions. Bro. Arthur Edward Waite published his Real History of 
the Rosicrucians in 1887 and thereby cast light on the mystery; but he is now, so he 
has written, engaged on a new history of the brotherhood and no doubt will add much 
to our knowledge. The Rosicrucians, by Hargrave Jennings, published shortly before 
the Waite volume, dealt, as a reviewer put it, with "practically everything under the 
sun except the Rosicrucians." Except for these two works, and for some periodicals, 
such as Mercury, the public has been left largely in the dark. Lord Lytton wove a 
romance about the sect in his Zanoni; so did Harrison Ainsworth in Auriol; and 
Shelley in St. lrvyne. If one adds to these the books that dealt with Rosicrucianism 
incidentally, such as Mrs. Pott's Francis Bacon and His Secret Society, Harold 
Bayley's The Lost Language of Symbolism, and Gould's History of Freemasonry, the 
transactions of lodges and learned societies (there are a few essays on the subject in 
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum), he will have about exhausted the list of volumes 
available to the general public and will meanwhile, perhaps, have reached no very 
definite conclusions for himself. 

The principal value of Mr. Henry's Ex Oriente Lux to the average reader not a 
Rosicrucianist is that in it will be found, in elementary form, something of the 
teachings of the sect as now organized in this land, for the book is, as the author 
himself describes it, "A discussion [in informal lecture form] of the Method of 
Approach, to the fundamental Principles of Rosicrucian Doctrine, on the part of those 
who have become habituated to Western ideas and modes of thinking." 

It is difficult to make a critical appraisal of this book, even though one may entertain 
toward its author and his aim the most sympathetic good will, and that for two 
fundamental reasons. For one thing the teachings of Rosicrucianism are largely 

"reserved", as Roman Catholic theologians would express it, and also because those 
same teachings derive their authority, at least according to the claims made, from 
sources entirely outside of common knowledge. How can one know anything about 
the "Great School", hidden in some remote country, of which Rosicrucians claim to 
be representatives and disciples ? or of the Rosicrucian teachings not given to the 
public ? or of those "Ancient Mysteries" (to which be peace!) which are evidently 
interpreted in Rosicrucian circles in a manner not at all in consonance with the 
findings of general scholarship, and of which the Brotherhood is said to be "the 
modern custodian" ? Confronted by these mysteries an outsider has no recourse but to 
lay his hand over his mouth and say nothing. 

The second difficulty in the way of appraising Ex Oriente Lux is that its author makes 
use of so many abstract highly generalized words about which hardly any two men 
can agree in definition; here are a few, selected at random, and all of them capitalized: 
Absolute, Omnific, Manifestation, Life, Affirmation, Spirit, Hidden House, etc. Any 
one of these terms, or of a hundred others like them, may mean any one of a thousand 
things, but the author furnishes no definitions of them, so that a reader soon finds 
himself in cloudland, and somewhat worried by his situation. This ready use of what 
William James called "solving words" - words that appear to mean much, but usually 
do not in the connections in which they are used, and often used blindly, like magical 
formulas - is treacherous at best, and all the more so in an attempt to make clear to 
readers doctrines already sufficiently difficult of understanding. 

One example will suffice. If one inquires of the author as to what he means by a 
"Hidden House" he receives this amazing reply: 

"The Sacred Books of the East all have their Light and Wisdom of the Hidden House 
as their theme. Ancient Mystery Schools were all Schools of Interpretation of its 
Symbolic teaching. 

"The highest thought of Western Writers and thinkers - the Poets from Goethe to Walt 
Whitman, including Tennyson, Browning and Lowell; the novelists from 
Bulwer-Lytton to H. G. Wells; the Philosophers from Ralph Cudworth to Emerson 

and Wm. James and Henri Bergson - has been inspired by the conviction that light 
could be won by the earnest seeker, from behind the veil, which guarded a most 
precious body of truth from premature discovery and profane exploitation." 

After this definition, which must profoundly surprise a reader, it is added that 
"Freemasonry presupposes the existence of this Hidden House, and its pre-eminent 
importance." Did Freemasonry derive this doctrine from the Rosicrucians? The author 
apparently thinks so because he quotes with seeming approval these paragraphs from 
Mercury, "the official organ of the Societas Rosicruciana in America": 

"Freemasonry certainly did not 'spring' from Rosicrucianism. Yet, in a perfectly 
legitimate manner, the Rosicrucian Fraternity was the parent of genuine Freemasonry. 

"The Rosicrucians perpetuated, from antiquity, both the Lesser and the Greater 
Mysteries. At a time when all arcane bodies suffered persecution, it assimilated with 
various contemporary craft gilds, principally of an operative character, invested with 
legitimate symbology, and shaped the Drama of the Temple Builders into a 
philosophic allegory. 

"When freedom of thought and action was assured, the gradual coalition of these gilds 
was attempted, and, from this movement, the modem phase of Freemasonry was 
evolved. Thus Rosicmcianism is what might be called the foster-parent of 
Freemasonry, yet preserving to Freemasonry all the enhancement of the dignity of age 
and an illustrious and legitimate descent from antiquity." 

Here are a number of statements which, if they could be substantiated, would 
completely upset the entire structure of Masonic history as it has been built up by 
careful and painstaking scholarship during the past forty years. In such a connection 
the burden of proof falls back on the author. 


In my review of Bro. Joseph Fort Newton's The Builders, published last month, page 
121, 1 incorporated in the last paragraph the suggestion that a list of questions for 
discussion might well be included, also that the bibliography could be made more 
accurate as to titles. Since that paragraph was penned a copy of the book as most 
recently printed by Doran for the M.S.A. National Masonic Library has come to hand 
and shows that my suggestions appeared late on the scene, inasmuch as the 
bibliography has been revised and enlarged, and the "Questions on The Builders," 
compiled by the Cincinnati Masonic Study Club, Cincinnati, Ohio, have been added. 
These changes will render yet more valuable a book that has already proved of such 
great utility to Masons. 


* * * 


To the Greeks and to many primitive people the rites of birth, marriage and death 
were for the most part family rites needing little or no social emphasis. But the rite 
which concerned the whole tribe, the essence of which was entrance into the tribe, 
was the rite of initiation at puberty. This all-important fact is oddly and significantly 
enshrined in the Greek language. The general Greek word for rite was telete. It was 
applied to all mysteries, and sometimes to marriages and funerals. But it has nothing 
to do with death. It comes from a root meaning "to grow up." The word telete means 
rite of growing up, becoming complete. It meant at first maturity, then rite of 
maturity, then by a natural extension any rite of initiation that was mysterious. The 

rites of puberty were in their essence mysterious, because they consisted in initiation 
into the sanctities of the tribe, the things which society sanctioned and protected, 
excluding the uninitiated, whether they were young boys, women, or members of 
other tribes. Then, by contagion, the mystery notion spread to other rites. 

- "Ancient Art and Ritual," Jane Harrison, p. 1 12. 

* * * 

BY BRO. WM. N. PONTON, Grand Master, Canada 

Unless the officers of a lodge are men of light and leadership, full of kindling power, 
the agenda will drag and there will be many empty interstices of precious time. 
Masonry, like nature, abhors a vacuum. Fill every minute with good craftsmanship - 
draw out latent talent - generously but discriminately divide the work. It may sound 
heretical but I personally would like to see the opening formalities of the several 
degrees much shortened, and the Junior Warden's lecture - that gymnastic test of 
mnemonics - considerably curtailed, or divided as it is in other jurisdictions. 
Encourage your members not to come to lodge alone always bring a neighboring 
brother - there is great joy as we walk and talk by the way and a pleasant companion 
is as good as a coach. Rain or shine commence on time and have all your members 
realize that at every regular meeting one-half hour will be specially featured along 
educational or inspirational lines, led by brethren whose pride it will be to prepare 
and share. The apprentices have covenanted to learn; we have covenanted to teach. To 
secure a good attendance it is not necessary to have buffoonery or vaudeville at the 
refreshment table. Do not mistake vulgarity for vivacity, or excitement for refined and 
happy pleasure. Do not go beyond the bounds of the Craft for "talent," except in those 
rare cases where an outstanding public man (who may not be a Mason) may be 
desirous of propagating the knowledge of some subject of general interest which he 
has made peculiarly his own. Above all let your members go away satisfied and 
feeling that they have been factors in the work and social pleasure of the lodge, and 
not spectators and side-benchers only. The eyes and ears are the way to the heart. 

True Masons are as willing to please as to be pleased - to share their gifts - to enlarge 
the horizon of their friendships. Give them ample opportunity - set the pace - keep the 
step - keep the touch. Rally together - stand together, work together, lift together - and 
all will be well. One final suggestion on this vital matter of present attendance and 
activity - make and keep your lodge-rooms and precincts worthy of the "House 
Beautiful." Ventilate well both ideas and atmosphere. You cannot have clear thoughts 
in foul air; you cannot have an A-l lodge in C-3 environment. 

— o — 



Is it possible for an individual Scottish Rite Mason to purchase a copy of the Scottish 
Rite Rituals? 

M.G.T., Philippine Islands. 

Replying to yours relative to the inquiry from the Philippine Islands regarding the 
purchase of the rituals of the Scottish Rite, 4d to 32d, beg to inform you that rituals 
are provided only to the regularly authorized subordinate bodies of the Sdottish Rite 
and never furnished to any individuals. Therefore, they are not for sale at any price. 

H.W. Witcover, Sec’y Gen'l, A.&A.S.S.R., S.J. 


Is the report true that the Grand Lodge of England is to remove from its present site? 

A. J., Dist. of Columbia. 

There was some talk of moving but it has now been settled that the Grand Lodge's 
new temple will be erected on the present site in Great Queen's street. 

* * * 


Can you please give me information about the size of the Acacia Fraternity in 
comparison with other college fraternities? 

M.C.B., Iowa. 

According to Baird's Manual the Acacia Fraternity ranks twenty-sixth among other 
college fraternities as to membership; it has 6,130 members as against Beta Theta Pi' 
28,897, the largest, and Beta Sigma Rho's 240, the smallest. Baird lists sixty-six 

fraternities. The first to be organized was Kappa Alpha in 1825; the last, Omega Beta 
Pi, 1919. Acacia ranks thirty-sixth in date, having been founded in 1904. The Triad, 
official journal of Acacia, edited by Bro. T. Hawley Tapping, 1511 Brooklyn avenue, 
Ann Arbor, Mich., reports Acacia as now having thirty-one chapters; Baird lists it 
twentysixth in order of the number of chapters and twenty-sixth in order of number of 
chapter houses owned. 

* * * 


Please tell me where I can find authentic information about the celebrated trial of the 
Knights Templar. 

J.T.B., Texas. 

You will find an excellent account of the suppression of the Templar Order in THE 
BUILDER, November and December, 1916, written by Dr. Frederick Hamilton, 
Grand Secretary, Massachusetts. Charlotte Yonge's vivid story of the same 
catastrophe, sometimes described as "the great crime of the Middle Ages," was 
published in THE BUILDER, October, 1923, page 314. The most authoritative of all 
accounts in book form is to be found in Henry Charles Lea's A History of the 
Inquisition of the Middle Ages, Vol. Ill, Book 3, chapter 5, Harper's edition, 1888. 
Lord Acton, the greatest Roman Catholic scholar of the last century, said of Lea that 
"this American has said the last word on his subject." Lea was an independent and 
impartial scholar who made the subject his life work. You can place entire confidence 
in his account. It contains some interesting matter about Jacques De Molay, the hero 
of the Order of De Molay. The Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. XXVI, page 597, 
condenses much information into one paragraph: 

"All France was at this time under the jurisdiction of the inquisition, and the 
inquisition could act without consulting the Pope. The Grand Inquisitor of France, 
William of Paris, was Phillip's confessor and creature. The way was thus open for the 
King to carry out his plan by a perfectly legal method. His informers denounced the 
Templars to the inquisition, and the Grand Inquisitor - as was the customary 
procedure in the ease of persons accused of heresy - demanded their arrest by the civil 

* * * 


The report has been circulating among our lodge members that a dollar bill of the 
1917 series contains carefully disguised religious pictures or emblems, and that the 
engraver of the bill was discharged from the Department for perpetrating it. What is 
the truth about this matter? 

M.T.B., Iowa. 

The same inquiry as yours was referred to Senator Simeon D. Fess by David H. 
Pierce, Akron, Ohio. Senator Fess sent the inquiry on to Louis A. Hill, Director of the 
United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Mr. Hill's reply settles the matter: 

"I am in receipt of your letter making inquiry as to the design on the one-dollar 
United States note of the 1917 series: 

"This particular note was designed and engraved by a bank note company, under 
contract with the Treasury Department before the establishment of the Bureau of 

Engraving and Printing in 1872, and has been used in various series since 1869. 
When the Government took over all the material in the possession of the contracting 
bank note companies the die for this note was delivered to the Treasury Department 
and no one in the Government service has any knowledge of the identity of the 
designer or the engraver, or any knowledge or in formation as to the motive for the 
engraving into the design the serpent in the lower left-hand comer. 

"As to the alleged portrait in the upper left-hand comer, which has been described as 
the portrait of the Virgin Mary and also of the Pope, an examination of this ornament 
with a reading glass will disclose that it consists of the petals of a flower which may 
be seen best by holding the note with the upper left-hand corner toward you. 

"Issue of the current series of all silver certificates, United States notes and Federal 
notes will be superseded by a new series of uniform designs for all classes as soon as 
plates for same have been completed. This action will retire the one-dollar note of 
1917 series above referred to." 

* * * 


A brother of mine in the British Army has written to ask me to find out for him when 
Freemasonry was established in India. Do Masons in India have a journal or other 
source of information ? 

H. G., New York. 

Freemasonry was carried to India by military lodges in the British Army. The oldest 
permanent lodge was established in Calcutta, 1730; next came a lodge at Madras, 
1752, and then Bombay, 1758. Recommend your brother to subscribe for The 
Masonic Journal of Northern India, addressing the Editor, P. S. Humm, 23 Abbott 
Road, Lucknow, India. Gould's Concise History, a new and complete edition of which 
has just been issued by Macoy, condenses into one paragraph the data concerning the 
present strength of Freemasonry in that ancient land, the home of Buddha and of the 

"In Bombay, the most brilliant era of the Craft is inseparably connected with the 
memory of Dr. James Bumes, by whom, in order to throw open the portals of 
Freemasonry to native gentlemen, a lodge - Rising Star of Western India - was 
established in December, the first regular meeting there were two initiations, one of 
the candidates being a Parsee and the other a Mohammedan, both ranking among the 
most highly cultured of their own people; and, in the following July, there were 
present in lodge nine native brethren, three of whom were followers of Zoroaster, two 
of Confucius, and four of Mahomet, but all assembled with the followers of Christ to 
worship the Masons' God. In the three Presidencies - with Aden and Burma - there 
are at the present time 210 lodges under the English, 6S under the Scottish and 12 
under Irish jurisdiction. Twelve of these British lodges are located in Ceylon." 

* * * 


How does the Grand Lodge of New Jersey rank among other Grand Lodges according 
to its membership ? 

E. A. R., New Jersey. 

According to statistics compiled by Bro. C. C. Hunt June 30, 1923, New Jersey ranks 
twelfth in the list with 73,854. While you are at it you may wish to see the standing of 
all Grand Lodges, including Philippine Islands. The table here given was compiled by 
Bro. C. F. Willard, editor of the San Diego Master Mason: 

1. New York 

26. North Carolina 


2. Illinois 

27. Arkansas 




28. Louisiana 


4. Ohio 


29. Mississippi 



30. Maryland 


6. Texas 


3 1 . Colorado 


7. Indiana 


32. South Carolina 


8. Massachusetts 


33. West Virginia 


9. Missouri 


34. Oregon 


10. California 


35. Florida 


1 1 . Iowa 


36. Dist. of Columbia 



37. Montana 


13. Kansas 

38. South Dakota 



39. Vermont 



40. Rhode Island 


16. Oklahoma 


41. North Dakota 


17. Minnesota 


42. New Hampshire 


18. Wisconsin 

43. Idaho 


19. Alabama 

44. Philippine Islands 


20. Tennessee 

45. Wyoming 


2 1 . Maine 

46. New Mexico 


47. Delaware 


48. Arizona 


24. Connecticut 


49. Utah 


25. Nebraska 


50. Nevada 


Total as of June 30 2,850,910 


One of the members of our lodge has asked to know when the House of the Temple, 
headquarters of the Scottish Rite, S. J., was dedicated. 

D. W. A., Ohio. 

The House of the Temple, located at 16th and S streets, Washington, D. C., was 
dedicated Monday, Oct. 18, 1915. The Secretary General, Bro. H.W. Witcover, may 
be able to supply you with a copy of the General Program then used, if you will write 
him for one. In that connection you may be interested to read the historical account 
printed in that program: 

"This noble and imposing structure, to be dedicated to the uses and purposes of 
Scottish Rite Freemasonry, is a monument to the wisdom of the founders of the 
Order, the power and influence of the Rite, and the beauty and symmetry of its 
teachings and philosophy. 

"It is Freemasonry carved in stone; it is a great symbol in itself, epitomizes the old 
truths which have come down through the ages from the most remote antiquity and 
saw the first dawn of human intelligence bursting through the thick mists and fogs of 
mere animal instinct when lighted by a spark of Love Divine. 

"As no combination of words can fitly convey a sense of the beauty of a sunset, a lily, 
or an infant's smile, neither can any description adequately express the grandeur of 
conception, the lofty thoughts, the eclectic philosophy cemented here into one noble 
block destined to withstand the storms of time and be a beacon light, through which 

its ancient prototype will continue to project rays of Charity, Toleration and Loving 
Kindness over the whole world. 

"For many years the Mother Council of the World held its meetings in Charleston, 
S.C., in a building still standing. Its headquarters were then moved to Washington, 
and by steady growth and accretions of property the House of the Temple, situated at 
433 Third street, N. W., became the Mecca of Scottish Rite Masons from all parts of 
the world. Therein died the greatest of Masons, Albert Pike, followed closely by 
James C. Batchelor and Philip C. Tucker. After them came Thomas H. Caswell and 
James D. Richardson, all of whom have left a lasting impression on the institution 
which the present Sovereign Grand Commander, the scholarly George F. Moore, is 
confidently expected to continue and increase by his faithful service and the growing 
influence of the Rite. 

"All these have created an atmosphere which will remain with the old House of the 
Temple for a long time to come, and the parting from such hallowed associations will 
bring a feeling of present loneliness and sadness. 

"But the marvelous growth of the Rite demands greater facilities, greater scope for the 
exercise of its powers, which will be given it by this building, furnishing not only 
room and opportunity for efficient service, but an inspiration and an incentive for 
redoubled efforts in the cause of Scottish Rite Freemasonry in its beneficent, 
self-imposed labor of assisting in the elevation Of humanity to a higher plane, of 
spreading the gospel of peace and concord through all nations and peoples, of 
diffusing the glow and warmth of compassion and sympathy for those sorrowing and 
afflicted, and of fostering a sturdy patriotism, a good citizenship, and manly 
independence, not only amongst its immediate membership, but by their example 
throughout the civilized 38,348 world. Esto perpetua." 

* * * 


Of all the degrees in Freemasonry that I have been privileged to take I am frank to say 
I like the Royal Arch about the best. Why can't we have more literature about it? In 
that connection may I ask, What were the cherubim? 

D. B. T., Illinois. 

An adequate Royal Arch literature is sadly lacking, but if the leaders in the Rite are 
successful in their plans that deficiency will be made up before very long. It is 
difficult to give a satisfactory answer to your query about the cherubim. In the first 
chapter of Ezekiel you will find a description of "four living creatures." They 
possessed the "hands of a man under their wings on their four sides; the four had the 
face of a man, and the face of a lion on the right side; and they four had the face of an 
ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an eagle." Ezekiel does not name 
these creatures but commentators have agreed in calling them cherubim. Ezekiel's 
pages, it should be noted, were written after the Exile. In the fourth chapter of the 
Book of Revelation is a similar description. John saw, assembled about the Throne, 
"four beasts." "The first beast was like a lion, and the second beast like a calf; and the 
third beast had the face of a man; and the fourth beast was like a flying eagle." Here 
again the "beasts" are not named but commentators have called them cherubim. 
Commenting on the cherubim Josephus, in his Antiquities, says, while describing the 
Ark, "Upon its cover were placed two images, which the Hebrews call 'cherubim'; 
they are flying creatures, but their form is not like that of any of the creatures which 
men have seen, though Moses said he had seen such beings near the throne of God." 
In the same book he describes the creatures placed by Solomon in the Temple and 
evidently implies that they were in effect the same as those earlier used by Moses; the 
Rabbins have called these cherubim. 

It appears that the Royal Arch banner on which the cherubim are emblazoned was 
first used in the middle of the eighteenth century in England, and was perhaps 
designed by Laurence Dermott, whose fertile mind did so much to shape the practices 
of the Ancient Grand Lodge, from which the first Grand Chapter of Royal Arch very 
possibly derived. As to the meaning of the cherubim in the Royal Arch, that, is 
difficult to ascertain seeing that Royal Arch writers and monitorialists have said little 

or nothing on the subject: Webb does not mention the cherubim, nor does Cross in his 
Masonic Chart, nor Mackey, in his Book of the Chapter. Sherville and Gould's Guide 
contains the lectures as now usually given but offer no interpretations. It is a subject 
awaiting research; would you not care to go into it yourself ? 

It is believed by many Assyriologists (Lenormant, for example) that the word 
"cherubim" derived from the Assyrian "kirubi", and originally had reference to the 
winged bulls which functioned as genii, each having the body of a bull, great 
outstretched wings, and the face of a man, the duty of which was to cover 
worshippers with their protecting power. Others trace the conception back to Egypt in 
the Egyptian use of winged vultures, with wings outstretched. Consult Mackey's 
Encyclopaedia, page 145. 

* * * 


In reply to a question in THE BUI1DER, March 1924, page 94, 1 may say that a book 
covering this question will be found in the Annual Directory published by M. W. Bro. 
Quartier-le-Tente P.G.M., Grand Lodge Alpina, Switzerland, the price of which is, I 
believe, seven francs Swiss. Some two years ago he also published an illustrated Two 
Centuries of Freemasonry which contains a great deal of information about European 
Freemasonry and the Grand Lodges with which it is in fraternal relations. His address 
is, I believe, 26 Beaux Arts, Neuchatel, Switzerland. 

N. W. J. Haydon, Canada. 


Bro. Gould's list of Masons in the war of the Revolution [THE BUILDER, March 
1924, page 78] omits several names on record in Albany, N.Y., at least one which 
should be in the list, as it is not generally known that he was a Mason. Brig. Gen. 
John Starke signed the roster of Masters Lodge, No. 2 (now No. 5), during the year 
1778, his name being thirteenth of the twenty-six who signed that year. 

This agrees with his war record as it will be recalled that he resigned early in March 
1777, but must have gone back into the service promptly as the Battle of Bennington, 
in which he took prominent part, was fought August 16, 1777. He was commissioned 
Brig. Gen. of Militia and later of the Continental Army, and for part of 1778 was in 
command of the Northern Department; and during that period joined Masters Lodge. 

The next name after his on the roster is Daniel Shays, but that will not likely find a 
place on Bro. Gould's list. There are several other names on this roster signed with 
military titles prefixed. Col. Henry B. Livingston signed about one year before 
General Starke, and Lt. Col. Henry A. Van Rensselaer near the end of 1779. 

According to Bro. Ossian Lang, Gen. Morgan Lewis was initiated in Union, No. 1, at 
Albany in 1778, but his name does not appear on its roster. No. 233 is vacant having 
been left for some brother who failed to sign, but this is the only break in the 
continuity of names. The signatures prior to No. 274 are not dated so it is impossible 
to tell whether 233 would come in 1778 or not. There are no names on the roster of 
Union, No. 1, with military titles but in Masters Lodge, No. 2, the titles run from 
Serg't Major Geo. Knox to Brig. Gen. John Starke, with a few naval titles to keep up 
the prestige of the Navy. 

Walter R. Marden, New York. 


Some time ago I read in some Masonic publication of a lodge somewhere in South 
America as the highest above sea level of any lodge in the world. 

In the summit of Owl's Head mountain in the Province of Quebec, Canada, there is a 
natural amphitheater of solid rock in which Golden Rule Lodge, No. 5, of Stanstead, 
Quebec, holds an annual communication 2,580 feet above sea level and from which 
the White mountains in New Hampshire, and the Green in Vermont, can be seen. 

There is a world of beautiful sentiment connected with such heroic relations to nature 
and any information regarding this "highest lodge in the world" will be gratefully 

L.B. Mitchell, Michigan. 

* * * 


"History of the Eastern Star," by Kennaston. 

"Caliph of Bagdad," by Sylvanus Cobb, Jr. 

"Genius of Freemasonry," by Buck. 

Vol. I, Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 

Vol. XXXII, Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. Both must be complete and with St. John's 

"Records of the Hole Crafte and Fellowship of Masons," by Edward Conder. 

"Restorations of Masonic Geometry and Symbolry," by H. P. H. Bromwell. 

"History of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite," by Robert Folger. 

Bound volume THE BUILDER, 1918. 

"Robert Burns and Freemasonry," by Dudley Wright. 

"The Masonic Year," for years 1920, 1921 and 1924. Pubished by Masonic History 
Company, Chicago. 

"I am anxious to secure loose copies of THE BullDER for the years 1915, 1916, 
1917 and 1918. 1 wish them complete from the first number, twelve copies for each 
year, unbound, with original covers as issued. Any brother who may have these to 

dispose of will please address a letter to me giving price and other details." - Edwin 
B. Hill, Ysleta, Texas. 

Send description and prices to Book Department, National Masonic Research Society, 
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. 

* * * 


For free distribution: A leaflet containing President Harding's last speech, an address 
to Hollywood Commandery, No. 56, K. T. Send your name and address on a post 
card if you wish a copy. They won't last long. Also a booklet on the "Mystic Order of 
Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm." 

More copies of the present issue of THE BUILDER have been printed than of any 
other issue thus far published. We are growing. 

Shiloh Lodge, No. 1, A. F. & A. M., Fargo, North Dakota, presents each new 
candidate raised with a membership in the N. M. R. S. Several lodges are now doing 
this. Why not get your lodge in line? 

We are starting a special research group on "the Bible in Masonry." Do you wish to 
join it ? Write Ye Editor. 

Attention, Masonic architects! If you would like to publish a book on Masonic 
architecture, with plans and illustration, write us; we have an interesting proposal. 

It has been proved that President Monroe was a Mason. We have ourselves recently 
unearthed evidence to show that President Arthur was also possibly a member. In 
event of the latter's membership the list of known Masonic Presidents will be 
increased from ten to twelve. 

Any Masonic body wishing to use The School Bell in quantities is urged to write us at 

The New England Craftsman has featured this fetching bit of poetry: 

"Isn't it strange that Princes and Kings 
And clowns that caper in sawdust rings, 

And common folks like you and me, 

Are Builders for Eternity? 

To each is given a bag of tools 
A shapeless mass and a book of rules; 

And each must make, ere life is flown 
A stumbling block or a stepping stone." 

— o — 


(All Prices Postpaid) 

Builder, The, in Bound Volumes 

1921, 1922 and 1923 cannot be sold separately; other years at $3.75 per volume. 
Complete set of nine bound volumes. 

Builders, The 


The most widely read of all Masonic books. Covers Masonic beginnings, known 
history, and furnishes interpretation of the general ideals and teachings of the Craft. 
(See review in THE BUILDER, April 1924.) Blue cloth, 343 pages, index 
bibliography, questions. $2.15 

Comacines, The 

Their Predecessors and Their Successors; 

Including Further Notes on the Comacines 

The only work on the subject available in English. Paper, fully illustrated, 43 pages. 
$ 1.00 

Concise History of Freemasonry 

Gives in condensed form the materials of his larger "History." The standard one 
volume history of Masonry in English. Cloth. 

Consolidated Index to The Builder' 

Covers years 1915 to 1919, inclusive. Paper 50 pages. 

Early History and Records of the Lodge, Aberdeen Iter 

An exceedingly valuable little book that explains much concerning Operative 
Masonry. ( See extended review in THE BUILDER, November, 1923.) Cloth, 74 
pages. $1.35 

Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry 

Two large volumes of 943 pages combined. Second volume contains glossary giving 
pronunciation and meaning of all Masonic words in general use. De Luxe fabrikoid 
binding, generously illustrated. $16.00 

Evolution of Freemasonry 

A popular history of Freemasonry; heavy coated paper, firm green cloth binding, 
reinforced back, many illustrations, index, 422 pages. $5.15 

Freemasonry Before the Existence of Grand Lodges 

A condensed scholarly book; embodies findings of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of 
Research on Masonic history prior to 1717. A standard work. (Reviewed in THE 
BUILDER, October, 1917.) Cloth, 164 pages. $1.90 

Freemasonry in America Prior to 1750 

The only work in existence covering its period and subject. A careful compilation of 
important data. Cloth, 225 pages. $1.35 

Freemasonry, Its Aims and Ideals 
By J. S. M. WARD 

A bold discussion of a number of controversial questions. Blue cloth, 232 pages. 

Gospel of Freemasonry 

Moralizings on Masonry conceived in a new vein. Popular. Selling with rapidity. 
Third edition. Cloth, 60 pages. $1.00 

Great Teachings of Masonry 

A "philosophy of Masonry" in popular form. Expounds each of the important 
teachings of the Craft in 18 chapters. Blue cloth, index, 187 pages, bibliography. 

History of the Knights Templar 

A standard work for Masonic Knights Illustrated, cloth, 670 pages. $3. 95 

Humanum Genus By ALBERT PIKE 

A reply to Pope Leo XIII's bull against Freemasonry. Paper, 52 pages. 15 cents 

Jokes for All Occasions (Anonymous) 

An assistance to speech makers of the post-prandial variety. Cloth, 368 pages. $1.10 

Lectures on Masonic Jurisprudence 

By ROSCOE POUND, Dean of the Department of Law 

Harvard University. 

Based on lectures delivered in 191 1-1912. Five chapters. Blue cloth, index, 112 pages. 

Lodge and the Craft 

(See review in THE BUILDER, November, 1923.) An exposition of the work of the 
Three Degrees. Cloth, portrait, 297 pages. $3.00 

Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry 

The most monumental work ever published in America. Seven large volumes with 
total of 2376 pages; illustrated; De Luxe fabrikoid binding; exhaustive index. $56.00 

Masonic Legends and Traditions 

(Reviewed in THE BUILDER, February, 1922. Review by A. E. Waite reprinted in 
THE BUILDER, July, 1922.) Cloth, 152 pages. $1.65 

Masons as Makers of America 

A popular account of Freemasonry in the Revolutionary Period. Last edition. Cloth, 
80 pages. $1.10 

Master's Lectures, The 

By the Worshipful Master of Evans Lodge 

Twelve chapters on Initiation, Fraternity Toleration etc. Gold embossed binding, 
8x11 inches 108 pages, limited edition. $5.15 

Meaning, The, of Masonry 

An interpretation of the general ideals and teachings of the Craft from a mystical and 
occult point of view. Black cloth, 216 pages. $3.25 

Military Lodges 

Covers about same ground as Gould's work on same subject, but condensed. Paper 
covers, 45 pages. 35 cents 

Moonlight Schools 


A thrilling account of the war being waged on adult illiteracy in the United States by 
the woman who started the "moonlight school" movement. Cloth. 194 pages. $2.10 

Mormonism and Masonry 

By S. H. GOODWIN, Grand Secretary, Utah 

Printed for the Craft by the Grand Lodge of Utah. Deals with a little known chapter in 
the history of American Masonry. Paper binding, 38 pages. 25 cents 

Philosophy of Freemasonry 

By ROSCOE POUND, Dean of the Department of Law Harvard University. 

Five chapters covering the leading Masonic philosophers. Blue cloth, 96 pages. $1.35 

Questions on The Builders 

A booklet compiled by the Cincinnati Masonic Study Club to be used in connection 
with "The Builders" (see in this list under "B") by Joseph Fort Newton. Paper 13 
pages, closely printed. 15 cents 

Roman Catholicism and Freemasonry 

A scholarly, non-controversial statement, incorporating most of the important official 
documents. Blue cloth 251 pages, index. $4.15 

Second Degree 


A popular brief interpretation of the Fellowcraft Degree. Pamphlet, blue paper, 16 
pages. 16 cents 

Speeches, Their Preparation and Delivery 

A handy text book for the budding orator. Cloth, 251 pages. $1.10 

Story, The, of Old Glory The Oldest Flag 
By J. W. BARRY, P. G. M., Iowa 

A story of the Flag and Masonry. Reprinted from THE BUILDER. Paper covers, 
illustrated, 20 pages. 60c 

Symbolical Masonry 


Especially suited for use by Study Clubs. Prefaced by a condensed history of 
Freemasonry. Interprets the work of the Three Degrees. Questions for discussion 
index, blue cloth, 380 pages. $2. 15 

Symbolism of the First Degree 

Elementary introduction. Good for Entered Apprentices. Pamphlet, paper, 12 pages. 
15 cents 

Symbolism of the Third Degree 

Elementary study to be read by newly raised Masons Pamphlet, paper, 1 6 pages. 
15 cents 

Symbolism of the Three Degrees 

Explains important symbols of the Three Degrees. (See Review in THE BUILDER, 
December, 1923). Blue cloth 96 pages, index, bibliography. $1.35 

Things a Freemason Should Know 

Condensed information about the organization and activities of English Freemasonry. 
Blue cloth. 1.35 pages. 

Thomson, The, Masonic Fraud 

Bro. Evans was the attorney employed by Masonic bodies in case against Thomson. 
(See review in THE BUILDER, October, 1923.) Authentic, complete, blue cloth, 
index, 268 pages. $2. 65 

Vest Pocket History of Freemasonry 


Has been largely used for presentation purposes. More than 40,000 distributed. 
Special prices in quantities Art paper covers, 36 pages. 25c; 

Woman and Freemasonry 

Especially valuable to students of the Order of the Eastern Star. Contains accounts of 
So-called "women Masons." Cloth, 184 pages $1.90 

All Prices Postpaid 

The National Masonic Research Society is a non-commercial organization that pays 
neither profits nor dividends. All profits are returned to the working treasury to be 
used to increase its service to the Craft. Its Book Department exists for no other 
purpose than the convenience of its members. 

National Masonic Research Society 
1950 Railway Exchange 
St. Louis, Mo.